Hydrochloric Acid Hydrolysis of Pulps from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches to Produce Cellulose Nanocrystals

Novitri Hastuti, Kyohei Kanomata, Takuya Kitaoka

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39 Citations (Scopus)


Abstract: Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were successfully isolated by hydrochloric acid hydrolysis followed by ultrasonic homogenization of oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB), which are a major form of agricultural waste in Southeast Asia. Currently sulfuric acid is mainly used in CNC preparation to achieve high dispersibility; however, we demonstrated that CNC suspensions prepared from OPEFB by hydrochloric acid hydrolysis remained stable without any sedimentation over 6 months. The obtained CNCs were fully characterized by elemental analysis, electron microscopic observation, X-ray diffraction measurement, and thermal analysis. The OPEFB-derived CNCs exhibited higher aspect ratios of 23–29 and higher thermal stability of 347–359 °C as maximum degradation temperature, as compared with those of woody CNCs prepared by sulfuric acid hydrolysis (15 and 311 °C, respectively). Although as-prepared CNCs showed comparable morphological and physicochemical properties to those prepared from oil palm biomass by other methods including sulfuric acid hydrolysis, use of hydrochloric acid and ultrasonication for hydrolysis of OPEFB was effective to yield crystalline CNCs with long-term nanodispersibility showing clear birefringence.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3698-3709
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Polymers and the Environment
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Materials Chemistry


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