Hypoalbuminemia, pneumococcal vaccination and the risk of community-acquired pneumonia in the elderly: A case-control study in southern Japan

Masakazu Washio, Kyoko Kondo, Wakaba Fukushima, Satoko Ohfuji, Nobumitsu Fujisawa, Takafumi Matsumoto, Hideki Tashiro, Hiroko Nogami, Tomoaki Iwanaga, Yoichi Nakanishi, Takanari Kitazono, Kanzo Suzuki, Yuichiro Ide, Yoshio Hirota

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Abstract

Objectives: Pneumonia is one of the major causes of death in the elderly. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors related to the development of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) as well as to evaluate the preventive effect of pneumococcal vaccination on CAP in the elderly in sub-group analyses. Methods: We performed a hospital-based case-control study. Cases were 70 patients who were newly diagnosed as having CAP while 146 controls were outpatients with other diseases (not pneumonia). All participants were 65 years and older. Results: Even after controlling for age, sex and hospital, hypoalbuminemia(< 3.5 g/dl) (adjusted OR = 4.15, 95%CI = 1.76-9.80) showed an increased risk of CAP, whereas activities of daily living (ADL) was inversely associated with a risk of CAP (self-supported vs. impaired: adjusted OR = 0.45, 95%CI = 0.22-0.93). In sub-group analyses, pneumococcal vaccination showed a decreased risk among the elderly with hypoalbuminemia (Crude OR = 0.22, 95%CI = 0.06-0.86). Even after controlling for age, sex, and hospital, pneumococcal vaccination showed an odds ratio lower than the unity although it failed to show statistical significance. Conclusions: Hypoalbuminemia and impaired ability to perform ADL may increase the risk of CAP in the elderly, whereas pneumococcal vaccination may prevent CAP among the elderly with hypoalbuminemia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)24-27
Number of pages4
JournalInternational Medical Journal
Volume27
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2020

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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Washio, M., Kondo, K., Fukushima, W., Ohfuji, S., Fujisawa, N., Matsumoto, T., ... Hirota, Y. (2020). Hypoalbuminemia, pneumococcal vaccination and the risk of community-acquired pneumonia in the elderly: A case-control study in southern Japan. International Medical Journal, 27(1), 24-27.