KPNAYKGKLPIGLWamide, a novel member of the GLWamide peptide family, was isolated from Hydra magnipapillata. The purification was monitored with a bioassay: contraction of the retractor muscle of a sea anemone, Anthopleura fuscoviridis. The new peptide, termed Hym-370, is longer than the other GLWamides previously isolated from H. magnipapillata and another sea anemone, A. elegantissima. The amino acid sequence of Hym-370 is six residues longer at its N-terminal than a putative sequence previously deduced from the cDNA encoding the precursor protein. The new longer isoform, like the shorter GLWamides, evoked concentration-dependent muscle contractions in both H. magnipapillata and A. fuscoviridis. In contrast, Hym-248, one of the shorter GLWamide peptides, specifically induced contraction of the endodermal muscles in H. magnipapillata. This is the first case in which a member of the hydra GLWamide family (Hym-GLWamides) has exhibited an activity not shared by the others. Polyclonal antibodies were raised to the common C-terminal tripeptide GLWamide and were used in immunohistochemistry to localize the GLWamides in the tissue of two species of hydra, H. magnipapillata and H. oligactis, and one species of sea anemone, A. fuscoviridis. In each case, nerve cells were specifically labeled. These results suggest that the GLWamides are ubiquitous among cnidarians and are involved in regulating the excitability of specific muscles.
|Number of pages||16|
|Journal||Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - B Biochemistry and Molecular Biology|
|Publication status||Published - Jun 1 2003|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology