Sourdough is a low-pH, fermented product prepared using lactic acid bacteria and yeast mixed with rye flour, wheat flour, and water. It is used and backslopped in bakeries because it enhances texture, flavor, and dough expansion of bread. Various lactic acid bacteria and yeasts have been identified in sourdough, especially in the West. However, microbial and physical characteristics of sourdough from Japan have not been investigated. Here, we characterized the microbial composition and food component characteristics of sourdough from four bakeries in Kansai region, Japan, and performed sensory and quality evaluation of baguettes enriched with 10% sourdough. We detected different species of lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus alimentarius, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus vaccinostercus, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, and Lactobacillus sakei. The identified yeasts primarily included Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with Candida humilis detected in some samples. Components such as amino acids, lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl acetate, and phenethyl alcohol differed among samples and distinctively affected flavor, quality, and aroma of sourdough-enriched baguettes. The different species of lactic acid bacteria and the ratio of lactic acid bacteria to yeasts possibly affected food components such as free amino acids, sugars, and organic acids via the Maillard reaction, which influences the savory aromas of bread. Future investigation of the effect of lactic acid bacteria will help to improve the overall quality of bread.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology