Purpose: Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is emerging as one of the important complications in cancer patients treated with antiresorptive agents. This study explored the potential role of interleukin (IL)-17-mediated M1/M2 macrophage alterations in the pathogenesis of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). Experimental Design: The expression of IL-17 and M1 and M2 macrophage markers at the local mucosal site of human BRONJ lesions was examined by immunofluorescence studies. BRONJ-like disease was induced in C57BL/6 mice and multiple myeloma-burdened mice by intravenous injection of zoledronate to evaluate the correlation of elevated IL-17 levels with changes in M1 and M2 macrophage phenotypes and the therapeutic effects of blocking IL-17 on pathogenesis of BRONJ-like disease. Results: Increased T-helper (T H)17 cells and IL-17 cytokine correlate with an increase in M1/M2 macrophages ratio at the local mucosal site of both murine and human BRONJ lesion. Convincingly, in mice burdened with multiple myeloma, a combination of elevated suprabasal level and drug-induced IL-17 activity augmented the incidence of BRONJ; both systemic increase of IL-17 and disease severity could be reversed by adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded M2 macrophages. Targeting IL-17 via specific neutralizing antibodies or a small inhibitory molecule, laquinimod, significantly decreased M1/M2 ratio and concomitantly suppressed BRONJ-like condition in mice. Mechanistically, IL-17 enhanced IFN-γ-induced M1 polarization through augmenting STAT-1 phosphorylation while suppressing IL-4-mediated M2 conversion via inhibiting STAT-6 activation. Conclusions: These findings have established a compelling linkage between activated IL-17-mediated polarization of M1 macrophages and the development of BRONJ-like conditions in both human disease and murine models.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research