Background: The recent development of open magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has provided an opportunity for the next stage of image-guided surgical and interventional procedures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of laparoscopic surgery under the pneumoperitoneum with the system of an open MRI operating theater. Methods: Five patients underwent laparoscopic surgery with a real-time augmented reality navigation system that we previously developed in a horizontal-type 0.4-T open MRI operating theater. Results: All procedures were performed in an open MRI operating theater. During the operations, the laparoscopic monitor clearly showed the augmented reality models of the intraperitoneal structures, such as the common bile ducts and the urinary bladder, as well as the proper positions of the prosthesis. The navigation frame rate was 8 frames per min. The mean fiducial registration error was 6.88 ± 6.18 mm in navigated cases. We were able to use magnetic resonance-incompatible surgical instruments out of the 5-Gs restriction area, as well as conventional laparoscopic surgery, and we developed a real-time augmented reality navigation system using open MRI. Conclusions: Laparoscopic surgery with our real-time augmented reality navigation system in the open MRI operating theater is a feasible option.
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