A permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) column test was carried out to remove arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn) from groundwater using zero valent iron (ZVI), sheep manure, compost and woodchips as reactive materials. Arsenic was mainly immobilized through sorption and co-precipitation with iron-bearing minerals, and also possibly precipitation as FeAsO4. The presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the inoculated column was suggested by decrease of sulfate concentrations and increase of δ34S in the effluent. Arsenic was more effective to immobilize in the inoculated than in the sterilized column due to co-precipitation with sulfides formed by reduction of sulfate in addition sorption and/or co-precipitation with carbonates. The Mn was mainly immobilized through adsorption onto compost and ZVI, and partly by precipitation as carbonates. Manganese was more effectively immobilized in the sterilized than in the inoculated column. Since compost is biodegraded, the capability of compost to immobilize Mn2+ decreased in the inoculated column. The result demonstrates that As is more effective to immobilize using mixture of sheep manure with ZVI than only ZVI as reactive materials in PRBs.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering