Eleocharis vivipara link, an amphibious leafless sedge, develops traits of C4 photosynthesis and Kranz anatomy in the terrestrial form but develops C3-like traits with non-Kranz anatomy when submerged. The cellular localization of C3 and C4 enzymes in the photosynthetic cells of the two forms was investigated by immunogold labeling and electron microscopy. The terrestrial form has mesophyll cells and three kinds of bundle sheath cell, namely, parenchyma sheath cells, non-chlorophyllous mestome sheath cells, and Kranz cells. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) was present in the cytosol of both the mesophyll cells and the parenchyma sheath cells, with higher-density labeling in the latter, but not in the Kranz cells. Pyruvate. Pi dikinase (PPDK) was found at high levels in the chloroplasts of both the mesophyll cells and the parenchyma sheath cells with somewhat stronger labeling in the latter. This enzyme was also absent from the Kranz cells. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) was found in the chloroplasts of all types of photosynthetic cell, but labeling was significantly less intense in the parenchyma sheath cells than in other types of cell. The submerged form also has three types of photosynthetic cell, as well its non-chlorophyllous mestome sheath cells, but it lacks the traits of Kranz anatomy as a consequence of modification of the cells. Rubisco was densely distributed in the chloroplasts of all the photosynthetic cells. However, PEPCase and PPDK were found in both the mesophyll cells and the parenchyma sheath cells but at lower levels than in the terrestrial form. These data reveal that the terrestrial form has a unique pattern of cellular localization of C3 and C4 enzymes, and they suggest that this pattern and the changes in the extent of accumulation of the various enzymes are the main factors responsible for the difference in photosynthetic traits between the two forms.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Plant Science