We previously found that AC-1, an extracellular polysaccharide, produced by Acetobacter xylinum and composed of (1,4)-β-D-glucan with branches of glucosyl residues, showed a strong activity to induce production of interleukin-12 (IL-12) p40 and tumor necrosis factor alpha by macrophages in vitro via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) signaling. In the present study, we examined the effect of oral administration of AC-1 on protective immunity against Listeria monocytogenes. Mice were given AC-1 or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) intragastrically 2 days before, on the day of, and 2 days after an intraperitoneal inoculation of L. monocytogenes. The survival rate of AC-1-treated mice was significantly improved and bacterial growth in AC-1-treated mice was severely retarded compared to those of PBS-treated mice after infection with L. monocytogenes. IL-12 p40 levels in serum and magnitudes of CD4+ Th1 and CD8+ Tc1 responses against Listeria antigen were significantly higher in AC-1-treated mice than in PBS-treated mice. The effect of AC-1 on antilisterial activity was diminished in C3H/HeJ mice carrying mutated TLR-4. Thus, AC-1, a potent IL-12 inducer through TLR-4, enhanced protective immunity against L. monocytogenes via augmentation of Th1 responses. These results suggest that infectious processes driven by intracellular microorganisms could be prevented to develop by the (1,4)-β-D-glucan.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Infectious Diseases