Understanding evolution of the functionalities of biochar versus temperature is a prerequisite for exploring application of biochar as functional carbon materials. In this study, pyrolysis of lignin with different heating rates was conducted. The results indicated that the higher heating rate promoted formation of more gases via the accelerated cracking of both the organic components of biochar and the volatile products. In addition, the deoxygenation reactions were suppressed at higher heating rate with short residence time, leading to the biochar with lower heating value and energy yield. The in situ Diffuse Reflection Infrared Fourier Transform Spectra (DRIFTS) characterization of the lignin pyrolysis indicated monotonous increase of the abundance of =C−H, C=C and C−O−C functionalities versus increasing pyrolysis temperature. However, the −OH, −CH3 and C−H2 in alkanes and the C=O were not thermally stable. Abundance of −OH maintained a plateau in 200−450 °C, while that for −CH3 and C−H2 in alkanes also reached maximum at ca. 450 °C and the further increasing heating temperature led to significant decomposition. The decomposition of C=O started at the lower temperatures of 200–325 °C, and the lactones, unconjugated alkyl aldehydes, alkyl esters, conjugated aldehydes/ketones experienced distinct temperature-abundance histories.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Analytical Chemistry
- Fuel Technology