The use of low-temperature plasma for the pre-sowing seed treatment is still in the early stage of research; thus, numerous factors affecting germination percentage, seedling growth, and yield remains unknown. This study aimed to estimate how two critical factors, such as harvest year and seed coat color, affect the percentage of germination and seedling growth after plasma treatment. Radish seeds stored for 2 and 1 year after harvesting (harvested in 2017 and 2018) were sorted into two colors (brown and grey) to investigate the plasma effect on harvest year and seed coat color. We analyzed the amounts of seed phytohormones and antioxidant (γ-tocopherol) were analyzed using mass spectrometry, and physical changes were studied using SEM, EDX, and EPR to understand the mechanism of plasma-induced changes in radish seeds. The obtained results revealed that plasma treatment on seeds affects the germination kinetics, and the maximal germination percentage depends on seed color and the time of seed storage after harvest. Through this study, for the first time, we demonstrated that physical and chemical changes in radish seeds after plasma treatment depends upon the seed color and harvest year. Positive effects of plasma treatment on growth are stronger for sprouts from seeds harvested in 2017 than in 2018. The plasma treatment effect on the sprouts germinated from grey seeds effect was stronger than sprouts from brown radish seeds. The amounts of gibberellin A3 and abscisic acid in control seeds strongly depended on the seed color, and plasma induced changes were better in grey seeds harvested in 2017. Therefore, this study reveals that Air scalar-DBD plasma's reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) can efficiently accelerate germination and growth in older seeds.
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