AIM: To investigate the clinical outcome of double balloon enteroscopy (DBE)-assisted endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (DB-ERCP) in patients with altered gastrointestinal anatomy. METHODS: Between September 2006 and April 2011, 47 procedures of DB-ERCP were performed in 28 patients with a Roux-en-Y total gastrectomy (n = 11), Billroth II gastrectomy (n = 15), or Roux-en-Y anastomosis with hepaticojejunostomy (n = 2). DB-ERCP was performed using a short-type DBE combined with several technical innovations such as using an endoscope attachment, marking by submucosal tattooing, selectively applying contrast medium, and CO2 insufflations. RESULTS: The papilla of Vater or hepaticojejunostomy site was reached in its entirety with a 96% success rate (45/47 procedures). There were no significant differences in the success rate of reaching the blind end with a DBE among Roux-en-Y total gastrectomy (96%), Billroth II reconstruction (94%), or pancreatoduodenectomy (100%), respectively (P = 0.91). The total successful rate of cannulation and contrast enhancement of the target bile duct in patients whom the blind end was reached with a DBE was 40/45 procedures (89%). Again, there were no significant differences in the success rate of cannulation and contrast enhancement of the target bile duct with a DBE among Roux-en-Y total gastrectomy (88%), Billroth II reconstruction (89%), or pancreatoduodenectomy (100%), respectively (P = 0.67). Treatment was achieved in all 40 procedures (100%) in patients whom the contrast enhancement of the bile duct was successful. Common endoscopic treatments were endoscopic biliary drainage (24 procedures) and extraction of stones (14 procedures). Biliary drainage was done by placement of plastic stents. Stones extraction was done by lithotomy with the mechanical lithotripter followed by extraction with a basket or by the balloon pull-through method. Endoscopic sphincterotomy was performed in 14 procedures with a needle precutting knife using a guidewire. The mean total duration of the procedure was 93.6 ± 6.8 min and the mean time required to reach the papilla was 30.5 ± 3.7 min. The mean time required to reach the papilla tended to be shorter in Billroth II reconstruction (20.9 ± 5.8 min) than that in Roux-en-Y total gastrectomy (37.1 ± 4.9 min) but there was no significant difference (P = 0.09). A major complication occurred in one patient (3.5%); perforation of the long limb in a patient with Billroth II anastomosis. CONCLUSION: Short-type DBE combined with several technical innovations enabled us to perform ERCP in most patients with altered gastrointestinal anatomy.
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