In vitro and ex vivo uptake of glutathione (GSH) across the intestinal epithelium and fate of oral GSH after in vivo supplementation

Jennifer Kovacs-Nolan, Prithy Rupa, Toshiro Matsui, Mitsuru Tanaka, Toru Konishi, Yusuke Sauchi, Kenji Sato, Shin Ono, Yoshinori Mine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Glutathione (GSH) is the most prevalent low-molecular-weight thiol in mammalian cells and is crucial for antioxidant defense, nutrient metabolism, and the regulation of pathways essential for whole body homeostasis. GSH transport systems have been identified in the membranes of various tissues and organs, including the small intestine. However, little is known regarding GSH transport across intestinal epithelial cells. The current in vitro and ex vivo uptake study of GSH demonstrated that intact GSH can be transported across intestinal epithelial cells, suggesting that GSH uptake is not proton-dependent. It would appear that the initial uptake of GSH into cells is a rapid process. Furthermore, the visualized GSH after 60 min of transport by MALDI-MS imaging showed localization of intact GSH inside the intestinal wall. In vivo study found that ingested 13C-GSH was rapidly converted to GSSG and accumulated in red blood cells and liver, but was little present in plasma. The ingested GSH has potent nutraceutical benefits for human health to improve oxidative stress and defense in human.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9499-9506
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Volume62
Issue number39
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 2014

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

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