Background: Hyperkalemia (HK) is a life-threatening complication following solid organ transplantation, and patients often need potassium-chelating agents and deviations from standard posttransplant protocols. This is the first study to report the incidence and clinical impact of hyperkalemia following heart transplantation. Methods: We retrospectively included patients who underwent heart transplantation at our institution between April 2014 and December 2018. Patients with multiorgan transplantation were excluded. Clinical outcomes of patients who had serum potassium >5.5 mEq/L in the first year posttransplant (HK group) were compared to patients who did not have serum potassium >5.5 mEq/L in the first year posttransplant (non-HK group). Results: A total of 143 patients were included in this study. During the first year posttransplant, cumulative incidence of serum potassium >5.0, >5.5, and >6.0 mEq/L was 96%, 63%, and 24%, respectively. Fifty-five percent of patients required treatment with potassium-chelating agents. Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was discontinued because of HK in 39% of patients. Overall survival of patients in the HK group (n = 89) was comparable to that of patients in the non-HK group (n = 54, 91% vs 98% at 1 year, P = .19), whereas infection-free survival was significantly lower in the HK group (34% vs 53% at 1 year, P = .010). Multivariate analysis revealed pretransplant renal dysfunction (odds ratio = 2.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-5.80; P = .018) and use of mechanical circulatory support (odds ratio = 2.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-7.76; P = .035) as significant predictors of posttransplant hyperkalemia. Conclusions: The incidence of HK following heart transplantation was high, with more than half of patients requiring any therapeutic interventions, and HK was related to an increase in infection events.
|Number of pages||8|
|Publication status||Published - Mar 2021|
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