Increase in hydrophobicity of Bacillus subtilis spores by heat, hydrostatic pressure, and pressurized carbon dioxide treatments

Seiji Noma, Kazuki Kiyohara, Rina Hirokado, Nami Yamashita, Yuya Migita, Motoharu Tanaka, Soichi Furukawa, Hirokazu Ogihara, Yasushi Morinaga, Noriyuki Igura, Mitsuya Shimoda

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6 Citations (Scopus)


The effects of heat treatment (HT), hydrostatic pressure treatment (HPT), and pressurized carbon dioxide treatment (CT) on surface hydrophobicity of B. subtilis 168 spores were investigated. The spore surface hydrophobicity was measured by determining the ratio of hydrophobic spores (RHS) that were partitioned into the n-hexadecane phase from the aqueous spore suspension. The RHS after HT generally increased in a temperature-dependent manner and reached approximately 10% at temperatures above 60°C. The effects of pressurization by HPT and accompanying temperature on increased RHS were complex. The highest RHS after HPT was approximately 17%. Following CT, RHS reached approximately 80% at 5 MPa at 80°C for 30 min. An increased treatment temperature enhanced RHS by CT. The increase in RHS by CT led to the formation of spore clumps and adhesion of spores to hydrophobic surfaces. Acidification of spore suspension to pH 3.2, expected pH during CT, by HCl also increased the adhesion of spores at the similar degree with CT. The spore surface zeta potential distribution was not changed by CT. Furthermore, spores with increased RHS after CT had germination-like phenomena including loss of their refractility and enhanced staining by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. Physiological germination that was induced by the addition of L-alanine also increased the RHS. From these results, it is clear that CT under heating considerably increases RHS. CT under heating considerably increases RHS. This increase in RHS may be due to acidification or germination-like phenomena during CT.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)327-332
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology


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