Rationale: Oxidation of cysteine residues in class II histone deacetylases (HDACs), including HDAC4, causes nuclear exit, thereby inducing cardiac hypertrophy. The cellular source of reactive oxygen species responsible for oxidation of HDAC4 remains unknown. Objective: We investigated whether nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (Nox4), a major nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, mediates cysteine oxidation of HDAC4. Methods and Results: Phenylephrine (100 μmol/L), an α1 adrenergic agonist, induced upregulation of Nox4 (1.5-fold; P<0.05) within 5 minutes, accompanied by increases in O2 (3.5-fold; P<0.01) from the nuclear membrane and nuclear exit of HDAC4 in cardiomyocytes. Knockdown of Nox4, but not Nox2, attenuated O2 production in the nucleus and prevented phenylephrine-induced oxidation and nuclear exit of HDAC4. After continuous infusion of phenylephrine (20 mg/kg per day) for 14 days, wild-type and cardiac-specific Nox4 knockout mice exhibited similar aortic pressures. Left ventricular weight/tibial length (5.7±0.2 versus 6.4±0.2 mg/mm; P<0.05) and cardiomyocytes cross-sectional area (223±13 versus 258±12 μm; P<0.05) were significantly smaller in cardiac-specific Nox4 knockout than in wild-type mice. Nuclear O2production in the heart was significantly lower in cardiac-specific Nox4 knockout than in wild-type mice (4116±314 versus 7057±1710 relative light unit; P<0.05), and cysteine oxidation of HDAC4 was decreased. HDAC4 oxidation and cardiac hypertrophy were also attenuated in cardiac-specific Nox4 knockout mice 2 weeks after transverse aortic constriction. Conclusions: Nox4 plays an essential role in mediating cysteine oxidation and nuclear exit of HDAC4, thereby mediating cardiac hypertrophy in response to phenylephrine and pressure overload.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine