Changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles, especially low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), are a common biomarker for several inflammatory and immune diseases, including atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. We examined the effect of simvastatin on HDL-induced anti-inflammatory actions. HDL and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive lipid component of the lipoprotein, inhibited TNF α-induced expression of VCAM-1, which was associated with NO synthase (NOS) activation, in human umbilical venous endothelial cells. The HDL- but not S1P-induced anti-inflammatory actions were enhanced by a prior treatment of the cells with simvastatin in a manner sensitive to mevalonic acid. Simvastatin stimulated the expression of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) and endothelial NOS. As for S1P receptors, however, the statin inhibited the expression of S1P3 receptor mRNA but caused no detectable change in S1P1 receptor expression. The reconstituted HDL, a stimulator of SR-BI, mimicked HDL actions in a simvastatin-sensitive manner. The HDL- and reconstituted HDL-induced actions were blocked by small interfering RNA specific to SR-BI regardless of simvastatin treatment. The statin-induced expression of SR-BI was attenuated by constitutively active RhoA and small interfering RNA specific to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α. Administration of simvastatin in vivo stimulated endothelial SR-BI expression, which was accompanied by the inhibition of the ex vivo monocyte adhesion in aortas from TNF α-injected mice. In conclusion, simvastatin induces endothelial SR-BI expression through a RhoA-and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α-dependent mechanism, thereby enhancing the HDL-induced activation of NOS and the inhibition of adhesion molecule expression.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy