Infection of macrophages with bacteria induces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α. TNF-α directly stimulates osteoclast differentiation from bone marrow macrophages in vitro as well as indirectly via osteoblasts. Recently, it was reported that bacterial components such as LPS inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in early stages, but promoted osteoclast differentiation in late stages. However, the contribution to osteoclast differentiation of TNF-α produced by infected macrophages remains unclear. We show here that Porphyromonas gingivalis, one of the major pathogens in periodontitis, directly promotes osteoclastogenesis from RANKL-primed RAW-D (subclone of RAW264) mouse macrophages, and we show that TNF-α is not involved in the stimulatory effect on osteoclastogenesis. P. gingivalis infection of RANKL-primed RAW-D macrophages markedly stimulated osteoclastogenesis in a RANKL-independent manner. In the presence of the TLR4 inhibitor, polymyxin B, infection of RANKL-primed RAW-D cells with P. gingivalis also induced osteoclastogenesis, indicating that TLR4 is not involved. Infection of RAW-D cells with P. gingivalis stimulated the production of TNF-α, whereas the production of TNF-α by similarly infected RANKL-primed RAW-D cells was markedly down-regulated. In addition, infection of RANKL-primed macrophages with P. gingivalis induced osteoclastogenesis in the presence of neutralizing antibody against TNF-α. Inhibitors of NFATc1 and p38MAPK, but not of NF-κB signaling, significantly suppressed P. gingivalis-induced osteoclastogenesis from RANKL-primed macrophages. Moreover, re-treatment of RANKL-primed macrophages with RANKL stimulated osteoclastogenesis in the presence or absence of P. gingivalis infection, whereas re-treatment of RANKL-primed macrophages with TNF-α did not enhance osteoclastogenesis in the presence of live P. gingivalis. Thus, P. gingivalis infection of RANKL-primed macrophages promoted osteoclastogenesis in a TNF-α independent manner, and RANKL but not TNF-α was effective in inducing osteoclastogenesis from RANKL-primed RAW-D cells in the presence of P. gingivalis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)