The short and long Japanese swords "WAKIZASHI" (back up sword of the main sword, "KATANA") were made by one sword craftsman. The short and long swords "WAKIZASHI" were machined by rough grinding and final hand polishing, respectively. The microstructure, carbon content and hardness of short sword were measured experimentally on the cross section of sword blade. The 2θ-sin2ψ diagrams from Fe-211 plane using Cr-Kα radiation on the ground and polished blade were measured. An influence of final hand polishing process on the surface residual stress field of sword blade was examined. As a result, biaxial principal compressive residual stresses were generated and had constant stress gradients in depth on the ground and polished surfaces because the ψ-splitting was not observed and the measured 2θ vs. sin2ψ relations could be approximated as a parabolic curve. Large compressive residual stresses more than -1.0 GPa were distributed on the ground surface from "HASAKI" to "HAMON" of short sword. The surface compressive residual stress and its gradient were diminished gradually from "HAMON" to "MUNE" (the ridge of sword). On the other hand, compressive residual stresses more than -650MPa were distributed on the polished surface from "HASAKI" to "HAMON" of long sword. The surface compressive residual stress and its gradient were also diminished gradually from "HAMON" to "MUNE", and the residual stress gradient in the transverse direction were greatly degraded in comparison to the short sword. Additional compressive residual stress field induced by rough grinding was superimposed on the residual stress field after tempering process. The residual stress field near the blade surface after rough grinding was released partly by final hand polishing.