Influence of osteoporosis and mechanical loading on bone around osseointegrated dental implants: A rodent study

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Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the influence of estrogen deficiency and mechanical loading on bone around osseointegrated dental implants in a rat jaw model. The maxillary right first molars of 36 rats were extracted. One week later, the rats were divided into an unloaded group and a loaded group; short head implants and long head implants were inserted respectively. Nine weeks after implantation, the rats were further subjected to ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery. All animals were euthanized 21 weeks after OVX. Micro-computed tomography, histological and histomorphometrical evaluation were undertaken. Systemic bone mineral density and bone volume fraction decreased in OVX groups compared with the sham controls. Histomorphometrical observation indicated that unloaded OVX group showed significantly damaged osseointegration and bone loss versus the loaded OVX group. Both the bone density (BD) inside the peri-implant grooves and the percentage of bone-to-implant contact (BIC) were lower in the OVX groups than in the sham-surgery groups, although mechanical loading increased the BIC and BD in the loaded OVX group compared with the unloaded OVX group. An increased number of positive cells for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase was observed in the OVX groups versus the sham controls. The percentage of sclerostin-positive osteocytes was lower under loaded compared with unloaded conditions in both the OVX groups and the sham controls. In conclusion, estrogen deficiency could be a risk factor for the long-term stability of osseointegrated implants, while mechanical loading could attenuate the negative influence of estrogen deficiency on bone formation and osseointegration.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104771
JournalJournal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Volume123
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Mechanics of Materials

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