In this study, trace oxygen and water as impurities in experimental gas environments were reduced to less than 10 ppb to eliminate their influences on the tribological properties. A pin-on-disk apparatus in an ultra-high vacuum vessel equipped with a gas filtering system enabled pure experimental gas environments. Dry friction tests clarified that the tribological properties of pure iron in ultra-high vacuum and argon were similar to each other. On the other hand, friction coefficients obtained in hydrogen and nitrogen were considerably lower than those obtained in ultra-high vacuum and argon. Specific wear rates of pin and disk were close to each other in ultra-high vacuum, argon and hydrogen while those took very different values in nitrogen. Hydrogen influenced the tribological properties of pure iron to some extent but the influences were not as much as that of nitrogen.