This study focused on an explosive cyclone migrating along the southern periphery of the Kuroshio/Kuroshio Extension in the middle of January 2013 and examined how those warm currents played an active role in the rapid development of the cyclone using a high-resolution coupled atmosphere-ocean regional model. The evolutions of surface fronts of the simulated cyclone resemble the Shapiro-Keyser model. At the time of the maximum deepening rate, strong mesoscale diabatic heating areas appear over the bent-back front and the warm front east of the cyclone center. Diabatic heating over the bent-back front and the eastern warm front is mainly induced by the condensation of moisture imported by the cold conveyor belt (CCB) and the warm conveyor belt (WCB), respectively. The dry air parcels transported by the CCB can receive large amounts of moisture from the warm currents, whereas the very humid air parcels transported by the WCB can hardly be modified by those currents. The well-organized nature of the CCB plays a key role not only in enhancing surface evaporation from the warm currents but also in importing the evaporated vapor into the bent-back front. The imported vapor converges at the bent-back front, leading to latent heat release. The latent heating facilitates the cyclone's development through the production of positive potential vorticity in the lower troposphere. Its deepening can, in turn, reinforce the CCB. In the presence of a favorable synoptic-scale environment, such a positive feedback process can lead to the rapid intensification of a cyclone over warm currents.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atmospheric Science