Aims Tumour protein p53 plays an important role in the vascular remodelling process as well as in oncogenesis. p53 is negatively regulated by murine double minute 2 (MDM2). A recently developed MDM2 inhibitor, nutlin-3, is a non-genotoxic activator of the p53 pathway. So far, the effect of MDM2 inhibition on vascular remodelling has not been elucidated. We therefore investigated the effect of nutlin-3 on neointima formation. Methods and resultsNutlin-3 up-regulated p53 and its downstream target p21 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). DNA synthesis assay and flow cytometric analysis revealed that nutlin-3 inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced VSMC proliferation by cell cycle arrest. This inhibitory effect was abrogated in p53-siRNA-transfected VSMCs. Furthermore, nutlin-3 inhibited PDGF-stimulated VSMC migration. Treatment with nutlin-3 attenuated neointimal hyperplasia at 28 days after vascular injury in mice, associated with up-regulation of p53 and p21. BrdU incorporation was decreased at 14 days after injury in nutlin-3-treated mice. TUNEL assay showed that nutlin-3 did not exaggerate apoptosis of the injured vessels. Infiltration of macrophages and T-lymphocytes and mRNA expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-5, interleukin-6, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 were decreased in the injured vessels of nutlin-3-treated mice. Nutlin-3 suppressed NF-κB activation in VSMCs, but not in p53-siRNA-transfected VSMCs. ConclusionsThe MDM2 antagonist nutlin-3 inhibits VSMC proliferation, migration, and NF-κB activation, and also attenuates neointimal hyperplasia after vascular injury in mice, which is associated with suppression of vascular cell proliferation and an inflammatory response. Targeting MDM2 might be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of vascular proliferative diseases.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Physiology (medical)