Objective: Arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) are the preferred vascular access for hemodialysis, but the primary success rate of AVF remains poor. Successful AVF maturation requires vascular wall thickening and outward remodeling. A key factor determining successful AVF maturation is inflammation that is characterized by accumulation of both T-cells and macrophages. We have previously shown that anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages are critically important for vascular wall thickening during venous remodeling; therefore, regulation of macrophage accumulation may be an important mechanism promoting AVF maturation. Since CD4+ T-cells such as T-helper type 1 cells, T-helper type 2 cells, and regulatory T-cells can induce macrophage migration, proliferation, and polarization, we hypothesized that CD4+ T-cells regulate macrophage accumulation to promote AVF maturation. Approach and Results: In a mouse aortocaval fistula model, T-cells temporally precede macrophages in the remodeling AVF wall. CsA (cyclosporine A; 5 mg/kg, sq, daily) or vehicle (5% dimethyl sulfoxide) was administered to inhibit T-cell function during venous remodeling. CsA reduced the numbers of T-helper type 1 cells, T-helper type 2, and regulatory T-cells, as well as M1- and M2-macrophage accumulation in the wall of the remodeling fistula; these effects were associated with reduced vascular wall thickening and increased outward remodeling in wild-type mice. However, these effects were eliminated in nude mice, showing that the effects of CsA on macrophage accumulation and adaptive venous remodeling are T-cell-dependent. Conclusions: T-cells regulate macrophage accumulation in the maturing venous wall to control adaptive remodeling. Regulation of T-cells during AVF maturation may be a strategy that can improve AVF maturation.
|Journal||Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology|
|Publication status||Accepted/In press - 2021|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine