Insight into the mechanism of geranyl-β-phellandrene formation catalyzed by Class IB terpene synthases

Shogo Iwakata, Kazuya Asada, Tomoyuki Nishi, Rafaella Stepanova, So Shinoda, Daijiro Ueda, Masahiro Fujihashi, Yoko Yasuno, Tetsuro Shinada, Tsutomu Sato

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Terpene synthase (TS) from Bacillus alcalophilus (BalTS) is the only Class IB TS for which a 3D structure has been elucidated. Recently, geranyl-β-phellandrene, a novel cyclic diterpene, was identified as a product of BalTS in addition to the acyclic β-springene. In the present study, we have provided insight into the mechanism of geranyl-β-phellandrene formation. Deuterium labeling experiments revealed that the compound is produced via a 1,3-hydride shift. In addition, nonenzymatic reactions using divalent metal ions were performed. The enzyme is essential for the geranyl-β-phellandrene formation. Furthermore, BalTS variants targeting tyrosine residues enhanced the yield of geranyl-β-phellandrene and the proportion of the compound of the total products. It was suggested that the expansion of the active site space may allow the conformation of the intermediates necessary for cyclization. The present study describes the first Class IB TSs to successfully alter product profiles while retaining high enzyme activity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)724-729
Number of pages6
JournalBioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2022
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Organic Chemistry


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