OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to determine whether insulin resistance is associated with clinical outcomes after acute ischemic stroke.
METHODS: We enrolled 4,655 patients with acute ischemic stroke (aged 70.3 ± 12.5 years, 63.5% men) who had been independent before admission; were hospitalized in 7 stroke centers in Fukuoka, Japan, from April 2009 to March 2015; and received no insulin therapy during hospitalization. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) score was calculated using fasting blood glucose and insulin levels measured 8.3 ± 7.8 days after onset. Study outcomes were neurologic improvement (≥4-point decrease in NIH Stroke Scale score or 0 at discharge), poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score of ≥3 at 3 months), and 3-month prognosis (stroke recurrence and all-cause mortality). Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of the HOMA-IR score with clinical outcomes.
RESULTS: The HOMA-IR score was associated with neurologic improvement (odds ratio, 0.68 [95% confidence interval, 0.56-0.83], top vs bottom quintile) and with poor functional outcome (2.02 [1.52-2.68], top vs bottom quintile) after adjusting for potential confounding factors, including diabetes and body mass index. HOMA-IR was not associated with stroke recurrence or mortality within 3 months of onset. The associations were maintained in nondiabetic or nonobese patients. No heterogeneity was observed according to age, sex, stroke subtype, or stroke severity.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that insulin resistance is independently associated with poor functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke apart from the risk of short-term stroke recurrence or mortality.