Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. I: Single-layer cloud

Stephen A. Klein, Renata B. McCoy, Hugh Morrison, Andrew S. Ackerman, Alexander Avramov, Gijs de Boer, Mingxuan Chen, Jason N.S. Cole, Anthony D. del Genio, Michael Falk, Michael J. Foster, Ann Fridlind, Jean Christophe Golaz, Tempei Hashino, Jerry Y. Harrington, Corinna Hoose, Marat F. Khairoutdinov, Vincent E. Larson, Xiaohong Liu, Yali LuoGreg M. McFarquhar, Surabi Menon, Roel A.J. Neggers, Sungsu Park, Michael R. Poellot, Jerome M. Schmidt, Igor Sednev, Ben J. Shipway, Matthew D. Shupe, Douglas A. Spangenberg, Yogesh C. Sud, David D. Turner, Dana E. Veron, Knut von Salzen, Gregory K. Walker, Zhien Wang, Audrey B. Wolf, Shaocheng Xie, Kuan Man Xu, Fanglin Yang, Gong Zhang

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Abstract

Results are presented from an intercomparison of single-column and cloud-resolving model simulations of a cold-air outbreak mixed-phase stratocumulus cloud observed during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) programme's Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. The observed cloud occurred in a well-mixed boundary layer with a cloud-top temperature of -15°C. The average liquid water path of around 160 g m-2 was about two-thirds of the adiabatic value and far greater than the average mass of ice which when integrated from the surface to cloud top was around 15 g m-2. Simulations of 17 single-column models (SCMs) and 9 cloud-resolving models (CRMs) are compared. While the simulated ice water path is generally consistent with observed values, the median SCM and CRM liquid water path is a factor-of-three smaller than observed. Results from a sensitivity study in which models removed ice microphysics suggest that in many models the interaction between liquid and ice-phase microphysics is responsible for the large model underestimate of liquid water path. Despite this underestimate, the simulated liquid and ice water paths of several models are consistent with observed values. Furthermore, models with more sophisticated microphysics simulate liquid and ice water paths that are in better agreement with the observed values, although considerable scatter exists. Although no single factor guarantees a good simulation, these results emphasize the need for improvement in the model representation of mixed-phase microphysics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)979-1002
Number of pages24
JournalQuarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society
Volume135
Issue number641
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 2009

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simulation
experiment
ice
liquid
water
radiation
stratocumulus
cold air
mixed layer
boundary layer
temperature

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Atmospheric Science

Cite this

Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. I : Single-layer cloud. / Klein, Stephen A.; McCoy, Renata B.; Morrison, Hugh; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Avramov, Alexander; de Boer, Gijs; Chen, Mingxuan; Cole, Jason N.S.; del Genio, Anthony D.; Falk, Michael; Foster, Michael J.; Fridlind, Ann; Golaz, Jean Christophe; Hashino, Tempei; Harrington, Jerry Y.; Hoose, Corinna; Khairoutdinov, Marat F.; Larson, Vincent E.; Liu, Xiaohong; Luo, Yali; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Menon, Surabi; Neggers, Roel A.J.; Park, Sungsu; Poellot, Michael R.; Schmidt, Jerome M.; Sednev, Igor; Shipway, Ben J.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Sud, Yogesh C.; Turner, David D.; Veron, Dana E.; von Salzen, Knut; Walker, Gregory K.; Wang, Zhien; Wolf, Audrey B.; Xie, Shaocheng; Xu, Kuan Man; Yang, Fanglin; Zhang, Gong.

In: Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 135, No. 641, 01.04.2009, p. 979-1002.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Klein, SA, McCoy, RB, Morrison, H, Ackerman, AS, Avramov, A, de Boer, G, Chen, M, Cole, JNS, del Genio, AD, Falk, M, Foster, MJ, Fridlind, A, Golaz, JC, Hashino, T, Harrington, JY, Hoose, C, Khairoutdinov, MF, Larson, VE, Liu, X, Luo, Y, McFarquhar, GM, Menon, S, Neggers, RAJ, Park, S, Poellot, MR, Schmidt, JM, Sednev, I, Shipway, BJ, Shupe, MD, Spangenberg, DA, Sud, YC, Turner, DD, Veron, DE, von Salzen, K, Walker, GK, Wang, Z, Wolf, AB, Xie, S, Xu, KM, Yang, F & Zhang, G 2009, 'Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. I: Single-layer cloud', Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 135, no. 641, pp. 979-1002. https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.416
Klein, Stephen A. ; McCoy, Renata B. ; Morrison, Hugh ; Ackerman, Andrew S. ; Avramov, Alexander ; de Boer, Gijs ; Chen, Mingxuan ; Cole, Jason N.S. ; del Genio, Anthony D. ; Falk, Michael ; Foster, Michael J. ; Fridlind, Ann ; Golaz, Jean Christophe ; Hashino, Tempei ; Harrington, Jerry Y. ; Hoose, Corinna ; Khairoutdinov, Marat F. ; Larson, Vincent E. ; Liu, Xiaohong ; Luo, Yali ; McFarquhar, Greg M. ; Menon, Surabi ; Neggers, Roel A.J. ; Park, Sungsu ; Poellot, Michael R. ; Schmidt, Jerome M. ; Sednev, Igor ; Shipway, Ben J. ; Shupe, Matthew D. ; Spangenberg, Douglas A. ; Sud, Yogesh C. ; Turner, David D. ; Veron, Dana E. ; von Salzen, Knut ; Walker, Gregory K. ; Wang, Zhien ; Wolf, Audrey B. ; Xie, Shaocheng ; Xu, Kuan Man ; Yang, Fanglin ; Zhang, Gong. / Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. I : Single-layer cloud. In: Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society. 2009 ; Vol. 135, No. 641. pp. 979-1002.
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abstract = "Results are presented from an intercomparison of single-column and cloud-resolving model simulations of a cold-air outbreak mixed-phase stratocumulus cloud observed during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) programme's Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. The observed cloud occurred in a well-mixed boundary layer with a cloud-top temperature of -15°C. The average liquid water path of around 160 g m-2 was about two-thirds of the adiabatic value and far greater than the average mass of ice which when integrated from the surface to cloud top was around 15 g m-2. Simulations of 17 single-column models (SCMs) and 9 cloud-resolving models (CRMs) are compared. While the simulated ice water path is generally consistent with observed values, the median SCM and CRM liquid water path is a factor-of-three smaller than observed. Results from a sensitivity study in which models removed ice microphysics suggest that in many models the interaction between liquid and ice-phase microphysics is responsible for the large model underestimate of liquid water path. Despite this underestimate, the simulated liquid and ice water paths of several models are consistent with observed values. Furthermore, models with more sophisticated microphysics simulate liquid and ice water paths that are in better agreement with the observed values, although considerable scatter exists. Although no single factor guarantees a good simulation, these results emphasize the need for improvement in the model representation of mixed-phase microphysics.",
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T1 - Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. I

T2 - Single-layer cloud

AU - Klein, Stephen A.

AU - McCoy, Renata B.

AU - Morrison, Hugh

AU - Ackerman, Andrew S.

AU - Avramov, Alexander

AU - de Boer, Gijs

AU - Chen, Mingxuan

AU - Cole, Jason N.S.

AU - del Genio, Anthony D.

AU - Falk, Michael

AU - Foster, Michael J.

AU - Fridlind, Ann

AU - Golaz, Jean Christophe

AU - Hashino, Tempei

AU - Harrington, Jerry Y.

AU - Hoose, Corinna

AU - Khairoutdinov, Marat F.

AU - Larson, Vincent E.

AU - Liu, Xiaohong

AU - Luo, Yali

AU - McFarquhar, Greg M.

AU - Menon, Surabi

AU - Neggers, Roel A.J.

AU - Park, Sungsu

AU - Poellot, Michael R.

AU - Schmidt, Jerome M.

AU - Sednev, Igor

AU - Shipway, Ben J.

AU - Shupe, Matthew D.

AU - Spangenberg, Douglas A.

AU - Sud, Yogesh C.

AU - Turner, David D.

AU - Veron, Dana E.

AU - von Salzen, Knut

AU - Walker, Gregory K.

AU - Wang, Zhien

AU - Wolf, Audrey B.

AU - Xie, Shaocheng

AU - Xu, Kuan Man

AU - Yang, Fanglin

AU - Zhang, Gong

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AB - Results are presented from an intercomparison of single-column and cloud-resolving model simulations of a cold-air outbreak mixed-phase stratocumulus cloud observed during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) programme's Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. The observed cloud occurred in a well-mixed boundary layer with a cloud-top temperature of -15°C. The average liquid water path of around 160 g m-2 was about two-thirds of the adiabatic value and far greater than the average mass of ice which when integrated from the surface to cloud top was around 15 g m-2. Simulations of 17 single-column models (SCMs) and 9 cloud-resolving models (CRMs) are compared. While the simulated ice water path is generally consistent with observed values, the median SCM and CRM liquid water path is a factor-of-three smaller than observed. Results from a sensitivity study in which models removed ice microphysics suggest that in many models the interaction between liquid and ice-phase microphysics is responsible for the large model underestimate of liquid water path. Despite this underestimate, the simulated liquid and ice water paths of several models are consistent with observed values. Furthermore, models with more sophisticated microphysics simulate liquid and ice water paths that are in better agreement with the observed values, although considerable scatter exists. Although no single factor guarantees a good simulation, these results emphasize the need for improvement in the model representation of mixed-phase microphysics.

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