Interleukin-6 deletion stimulates revascularization and new bone formation following ischemic osteonecrosis in a murine model

Gen Kuroyanagi, Naga Suresh Adapala, Ryosuke Yamaguchi, Nobuhiro Kamiya, Zhuo Deng, Olumide Aruwajoye, Michael Kutschke, Elena Chen, Chanhee Jo, Yinshi Ren, Harry K.W. Kim

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Abstract

Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) is a childhood form of ischemic osteonecrosis of the femoral head which can produce a permanent femoral head deformity and early osteoarthritis. The femoral head deformity results from increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation during repair and remodeling of the necrotic femoral head. A recent study showed that a pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), is significantly elevated in the synovial fluid of patients with LCPD. We hypothesized that IL-6 elevation decreases bone formation during the repair process following ischemic osteonecrosis and that IL-6 depletion will increase new bone formation. To test this hypothesis, we surgically induced ischemic osteonecrosis in the wild-type (n = 29) and IL-6 knockout (KO) mice (n = 25). The animals were assessed at 48 h, 2 weeks and 4 weeks following the induction of ischemic osteonecrosis using histologic, histomorphometric and micro-CT methods. IL-6 immunohistochemistry showed high expression of IL-6 in the osteonecrotic side of the wild-type mice at 48 h and 4 weeks following ischemic osteonecrosis, but not in the IL-6 KO mice. We also confirmed an undetectable level of IL-6 expression in the primary osteoblasts of the IL-6 KO mice compared to the readily detectable level in the wild-type mice. Furthermore, we confirmed that IL-6 deletion did not affect the extent of bone necrosis in the IL-6 KO mice compared to the wild-type mice by performing histologic and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assessments at 2 weeks following the induction of ischemia. Both groups had the same extent of ischemic osteonecrosis and absence of repair at 2 weeks. At 4 weeks, the necrotic epiphyses showed a significant increase in the extent of revascularization in the IL-6 KO mice compared to the wild-type mice (p = 0.001). In addition, a significantly greater recovery of the hematopoietic bone marrow was observed in the osteonecrotic side of the IL-6 KO mice compared to the wild-type mice (p < 0.01). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) immunohistochemistry showed regionally increased staining in the areas of repair in the osteonecrosis side of IL-6 KO mice compared to the wild-type mice at 4 weeks following ischemic osteonecrosis. Micro-CT assessment of the wild-type mice at 4 weeks showed a significant decrease in the percent bone volume (p < 0.01) in the osteonecrotic side compared to the control side. In contrast, IL-6 KO mice showed significantly increased bone volume in the osteonecrotic side compared to the osteonecrotic side of WT mice (p < 0.001). No significant difference in the bone volume percentage was found between the control side of the wild-type and the IL-6 KO mice. Histomorphometric analysis at 4 weeks revealed increased osteoblast number/bone surface (p < 0.001), bone formation rate (BFR) (p = 0.0001), and mineral apposition rate (MAR) (p < 0.0001) in the osteonecrotic side of the IL-6 KO mice compared to the wild-type mice. The number of osteoclast/bone surface was also increased in the IL-6 KO mice compared to the wild-type mice (p < 0.0001). No significant difference was observed between the control side of the wild-type and IL-6 KO mice with regards to the number of osteoblast or osteoclast/bone surface, BFR, and MAR. We next obtained primary osteoblasts from IL-6 KO mice and showed they expressed a significantly higher level of RANKL/OPG than wild-type mice (p = 0.001) in hypoxia culture condition. Taken together, the findings indicate that IL-6 deletion stimulates revascularization and new bone formation following ischemic osteonecrosis. This study provides new evidence that therapeutic strategies to block IL-6 may be beneficial for bone healing following ischemic osteonecrosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)221-231
Number of pages11
JournalBone
Volume116
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2018

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Osteonecrosis
Osteogenesis
Interleukin-6
Knockout Mice
Bone and Bones
Osteoblasts
Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease
Osteoclasts
Thigh
Minerals
Immunohistochemistry

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Physiology
  • Histology

Cite this

Interleukin-6 deletion stimulates revascularization and new bone formation following ischemic osteonecrosis in a murine model. / Kuroyanagi, Gen; Adapala, Naga Suresh; Yamaguchi, Ryosuke; Kamiya, Nobuhiro; Deng, Zhuo; Aruwajoye, Olumide; Kutschke, Michael; Chen, Elena; Jo, Chanhee; Ren, Yinshi; Kim, Harry K.W.

In: Bone, Vol. 116, 01.11.2018, p. 221-231.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kuroyanagi, G, Adapala, NS, Yamaguchi, R, Kamiya, N, Deng, Z, Aruwajoye, O, Kutschke, M, Chen, E, Jo, C, Ren, Y & Kim, HKW 2018, 'Interleukin-6 deletion stimulates revascularization and new bone formation following ischemic osteonecrosis in a murine model', Bone, vol. 116, pp. 221-231. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2018.08.011
Kuroyanagi, Gen ; Adapala, Naga Suresh ; Yamaguchi, Ryosuke ; Kamiya, Nobuhiro ; Deng, Zhuo ; Aruwajoye, Olumide ; Kutschke, Michael ; Chen, Elena ; Jo, Chanhee ; Ren, Yinshi ; Kim, Harry K.W. / Interleukin-6 deletion stimulates revascularization and new bone formation following ischemic osteonecrosis in a murine model. In: Bone. 2018 ; Vol. 116. pp. 221-231.
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title = "Interleukin-6 deletion stimulates revascularization and new bone formation following ischemic osteonecrosis in a murine model",
abstract = "Legg-Calv{\'e}-Perthes disease (LCPD) is a childhood form of ischemic osteonecrosis of the femoral head which can produce a permanent femoral head deformity and early osteoarthritis. The femoral head deformity results from increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation during repair and remodeling of the necrotic femoral head. A recent study showed that a pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), is significantly elevated in the synovial fluid of patients with LCPD. We hypothesized that IL-6 elevation decreases bone formation during the repair process following ischemic osteonecrosis and that IL-6 depletion will increase new bone formation. To test this hypothesis, we surgically induced ischemic osteonecrosis in the wild-type (n = 29) and IL-6 knockout (KO) mice (n = 25). The animals were assessed at 48 h, 2 weeks and 4 weeks following the induction of ischemic osteonecrosis using histologic, histomorphometric and micro-CT methods. IL-6 immunohistochemistry showed high expression of IL-6 in the osteonecrotic side of the wild-type mice at 48 h and 4 weeks following ischemic osteonecrosis, but not in the IL-6 KO mice. We also confirmed an undetectable level of IL-6 expression in the primary osteoblasts of the IL-6 KO mice compared to the readily detectable level in the wild-type mice. Furthermore, we confirmed that IL-6 deletion did not affect the extent of bone necrosis in the IL-6 KO mice compared to the wild-type mice by performing histologic and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assessments at 2 weeks following the induction of ischemia. Both groups had the same extent of ischemic osteonecrosis and absence of repair at 2 weeks. At 4 weeks, the necrotic epiphyses showed a significant increase in the extent of revascularization in the IL-6 KO mice compared to the wild-type mice (p = 0.001). In addition, a significantly greater recovery of the hematopoietic bone marrow was observed in the osteonecrotic side of the IL-6 KO mice compared to the wild-type mice (p < 0.01). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) immunohistochemistry showed regionally increased staining in the areas of repair in the osteonecrosis side of IL-6 KO mice compared to the wild-type mice at 4 weeks following ischemic osteonecrosis. Micro-CT assessment of the wild-type mice at 4 weeks showed a significant decrease in the percent bone volume (p < 0.01) in the osteonecrotic side compared to the control side. In contrast, IL-6 KO mice showed significantly increased bone volume in the osteonecrotic side compared to the osteonecrotic side of WT mice (p < 0.001). No significant difference in the bone volume percentage was found between the control side of the wild-type and the IL-6 KO mice. Histomorphometric analysis at 4 weeks revealed increased osteoblast number/bone surface (p < 0.001), bone formation rate (BFR) (p = 0.0001), and mineral apposition rate (MAR) (p < 0.0001) in the osteonecrotic side of the IL-6 KO mice compared to the wild-type mice. The number of osteoclast/bone surface was also increased in the IL-6 KO mice compared to the wild-type mice (p < 0.0001). No significant difference was observed between the control side of the wild-type and IL-6 KO mice with regards to the number of osteoblast or osteoclast/bone surface, BFR, and MAR. We next obtained primary osteoblasts from IL-6 KO mice and showed they expressed a significantly higher level of RANKL/OPG than wild-type mice (p = 0.001) in hypoxia culture condition. Taken together, the findings indicate that IL-6 deletion stimulates revascularization and new bone formation following ischemic osteonecrosis. This study provides new evidence that therapeutic strategies to block IL-6 may be beneficial for bone healing following ischemic osteonecrosis.",
author = "Gen Kuroyanagi and Adapala, {Naga Suresh} and Ryosuke Yamaguchi and Nobuhiro Kamiya and Zhuo Deng and Olumide Aruwajoye and Michael Kutschke and Elena Chen and Chanhee Jo and Yinshi Ren and Kim, {Harry K.W.}",
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T1 - Interleukin-6 deletion stimulates revascularization and new bone formation following ischemic osteonecrosis in a murine model

AU - Kuroyanagi, Gen

AU - Adapala, Naga Suresh

AU - Yamaguchi, Ryosuke

AU - Kamiya, Nobuhiro

AU - Deng, Zhuo

AU - Aruwajoye, Olumide

AU - Kutschke, Michael

AU - Chen, Elena

AU - Jo, Chanhee

AU - Ren, Yinshi

AU - Kim, Harry K.W.

PY - 2018/11/1

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N2 - Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) is a childhood form of ischemic osteonecrosis of the femoral head which can produce a permanent femoral head deformity and early osteoarthritis. The femoral head deformity results from increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation during repair and remodeling of the necrotic femoral head. A recent study showed that a pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), is significantly elevated in the synovial fluid of patients with LCPD. We hypothesized that IL-6 elevation decreases bone formation during the repair process following ischemic osteonecrosis and that IL-6 depletion will increase new bone formation. To test this hypothesis, we surgically induced ischemic osteonecrosis in the wild-type (n = 29) and IL-6 knockout (KO) mice (n = 25). The animals were assessed at 48 h, 2 weeks and 4 weeks following the induction of ischemic osteonecrosis using histologic, histomorphometric and micro-CT methods. IL-6 immunohistochemistry showed high expression of IL-6 in the osteonecrotic side of the wild-type mice at 48 h and 4 weeks following ischemic osteonecrosis, but not in the IL-6 KO mice. We also confirmed an undetectable level of IL-6 expression in the primary osteoblasts of the IL-6 KO mice compared to the readily detectable level in the wild-type mice. Furthermore, we confirmed that IL-6 deletion did not affect the extent of bone necrosis in the IL-6 KO mice compared to the wild-type mice by performing histologic and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assessments at 2 weeks following the induction of ischemia. Both groups had the same extent of ischemic osteonecrosis and absence of repair at 2 weeks. At 4 weeks, the necrotic epiphyses showed a significant increase in the extent of revascularization in the IL-6 KO mice compared to the wild-type mice (p = 0.001). In addition, a significantly greater recovery of the hematopoietic bone marrow was observed in the osteonecrotic side of the IL-6 KO mice compared to the wild-type mice (p < 0.01). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) immunohistochemistry showed regionally increased staining in the areas of repair in the osteonecrosis side of IL-6 KO mice compared to the wild-type mice at 4 weeks following ischemic osteonecrosis. Micro-CT assessment of the wild-type mice at 4 weeks showed a significant decrease in the percent bone volume (p < 0.01) in the osteonecrotic side compared to the control side. In contrast, IL-6 KO mice showed significantly increased bone volume in the osteonecrotic side compared to the osteonecrotic side of WT mice (p < 0.001). No significant difference in the bone volume percentage was found between the control side of the wild-type and the IL-6 KO mice. Histomorphometric analysis at 4 weeks revealed increased osteoblast number/bone surface (p < 0.001), bone formation rate (BFR) (p = 0.0001), and mineral apposition rate (MAR) (p < 0.0001) in the osteonecrotic side of the IL-6 KO mice compared to the wild-type mice. The number of osteoclast/bone surface was also increased in the IL-6 KO mice compared to the wild-type mice (p < 0.0001). No significant difference was observed between the control side of the wild-type and IL-6 KO mice with regards to the number of osteoblast or osteoclast/bone surface, BFR, and MAR. We next obtained primary osteoblasts from IL-6 KO mice and showed they expressed a significantly higher level of RANKL/OPG than wild-type mice (p = 0.001) in hypoxia culture condition. Taken together, the findings indicate that IL-6 deletion stimulates revascularization and new bone formation following ischemic osteonecrosis. This study provides new evidence that therapeutic strategies to block IL-6 may be beneficial for bone healing following ischemic osteonecrosis.

AB - Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) is a childhood form of ischemic osteonecrosis of the femoral head which can produce a permanent femoral head deformity and early osteoarthritis. The femoral head deformity results from increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation during repair and remodeling of the necrotic femoral head. A recent study showed that a pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), is significantly elevated in the synovial fluid of patients with LCPD. We hypothesized that IL-6 elevation decreases bone formation during the repair process following ischemic osteonecrosis and that IL-6 depletion will increase new bone formation. To test this hypothesis, we surgically induced ischemic osteonecrosis in the wild-type (n = 29) and IL-6 knockout (KO) mice (n = 25). The animals were assessed at 48 h, 2 weeks and 4 weeks following the induction of ischemic osteonecrosis using histologic, histomorphometric and micro-CT methods. IL-6 immunohistochemistry showed high expression of IL-6 in the osteonecrotic side of the wild-type mice at 48 h and 4 weeks following ischemic osteonecrosis, but not in the IL-6 KO mice. We also confirmed an undetectable level of IL-6 expression in the primary osteoblasts of the IL-6 KO mice compared to the readily detectable level in the wild-type mice. Furthermore, we confirmed that IL-6 deletion did not affect the extent of bone necrosis in the IL-6 KO mice compared to the wild-type mice by performing histologic and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assessments at 2 weeks following the induction of ischemia. Both groups had the same extent of ischemic osteonecrosis and absence of repair at 2 weeks. At 4 weeks, the necrotic epiphyses showed a significant increase in the extent of revascularization in the IL-6 KO mice compared to the wild-type mice (p = 0.001). In addition, a significantly greater recovery of the hematopoietic bone marrow was observed in the osteonecrotic side of the IL-6 KO mice compared to the wild-type mice (p < 0.01). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) immunohistochemistry showed regionally increased staining in the areas of repair in the osteonecrosis side of IL-6 KO mice compared to the wild-type mice at 4 weeks following ischemic osteonecrosis. Micro-CT assessment of the wild-type mice at 4 weeks showed a significant decrease in the percent bone volume (p < 0.01) in the osteonecrotic side compared to the control side. In contrast, IL-6 KO mice showed significantly increased bone volume in the osteonecrotic side compared to the osteonecrotic side of WT mice (p < 0.001). No significant difference in the bone volume percentage was found between the control side of the wild-type and the IL-6 KO mice. Histomorphometric analysis at 4 weeks revealed increased osteoblast number/bone surface (p < 0.001), bone formation rate (BFR) (p = 0.0001), and mineral apposition rate (MAR) (p < 0.0001) in the osteonecrotic side of the IL-6 KO mice compared to the wild-type mice. The number of osteoclast/bone surface was also increased in the IL-6 KO mice compared to the wild-type mice (p < 0.0001). No significant difference was observed between the control side of the wild-type and IL-6 KO mice with regards to the number of osteoblast or osteoclast/bone surface, BFR, and MAR. We next obtained primary osteoblasts from IL-6 KO mice and showed they expressed a significantly higher level of RANKL/OPG than wild-type mice (p = 0.001) in hypoxia culture condition. Taken together, the findings indicate that IL-6 deletion stimulates revascularization and new bone formation following ischemic osteonecrosis. This study provides new evidence that therapeutic strategies to block IL-6 may be beneficial for bone healing following ischemic osteonecrosis.

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