Interpreting observations of ion cyclotron emission from large helical device plasmas with beam-injected ion populations

B. C.G. Reman, R. O. Dendy, T. Akiyama, S. C. Chapman, J. W.S. Cook, H. Igami, Inagaki Shigeru, K. Saito, G. S. Yun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) is detected from all large toroidal magnetically confined fusion (MCF) plasmas. It is a form of spontaneous suprathermal radiation, whose spectral peak frequencies correspond to sequential cyclotron harmonics of energetic ion species, evaluated at the emission location. In ICE phenomenology, an important parameter is the value of the ratio of energetic ion velocity vEnergetic to the local Alfvén speed VA. Here we focus on ICE measurements from heliotron-stellarator hydrogen plasmas, heated by energetic proton neutral beam injection (NBI) in the large helical device, for which vEnergetic/VA takes values both larger (super-Alfvénic) and smaller (sub-Alfvénic) than unity. The collective relaxation of the NBI proton population, together with the thermal plasma, is studied using a particle-in-cell (PIC) code. This evolves the Maxwell-Lorentz system of equations for hundreds of millions of kinetic gyro-orbit-resolved ions and fluid electrons, self-consistently with the electric and magnetic fields. For LHD-relevant parameter sets, the spatiotemporal Fourier transforms of the fields yield, in the nonlinear saturated regime, good computational proxies for the observed ICE spectra in both the super-Alfvénic and sub-Alfvénic regimes for NBI protons. At early times in the PIC treatment, the computed growth rates correspond to analytical linear growth rates of the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability (MCI), which was previously identified to underlie ICE from tokamak plasmas. The spatially localised PIC treatment does not include toroidal magnetic field geometry, nor background gradients in plasma parameters. Its success in simulating ICE spectra from both tokamak and, here, heliotron-stellarator plasmas suggests that the plasma parameters and ion energetic distribution at the emission location largely determine the ICE phenomenology. This is important for the future exploitation of ICE as a diagnostic for energetic ion populations in MCF plasmas. The capability to span the super Alfvénic and sub-Alfvénic energetic ion regimes is a generic challenge in interpreting MCF plasma physics, and it is encouraging that this first principles computational treatment of ICE has now achieved this.

Original languageEnglish
Article number096013
JournalNuclear Fusion
Volume59
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 19 2019

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cyclotrons
ion beams
ions
beam injection
neutral beams
stellarators
fusion
phenomenology
emission spectra
magnetoacoustics
protons
thermal plasmas
plasma physics
hydrogen plasma
exploitation
proton beams
magnetic fields
unity
orbits

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Condensed Matter Physics

Cite this

Reman, B. C. G., Dendy, R. O., Akiyama, T., Chapman, S. C., Cook, J. W. S., Igami, H., ... Yun, G. S. (2019). Interpreting observations of ion cyclotron emission from large helical device plasmas with beam-injected ion populations. Nuclear Fusion, 59(9), [096013]. https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/ab2ca2

Interpreting observations of ion cyclotron emission from large helical device plasmas with beam-injected ion populations. / Reman, B. C.G.; Dendy, R. O.; Akiyama, T.; Chapman, S. C.; Cook, J. W.S.; Igami, H.; Shigeru, Inagaki; Saito, K.; Yun, G. S.

In: Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 59, No. 9, 096013, 19.07.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Reman, BCG, Dendy, RO, Akiyama, T, Chapman, SC, Cook, JWS, Igami, H, Shigeru, I, Saito, K & Yun, GS 2019, 'Interpreting observations of ion cyclotron emission from large helical device plasmas with beam-injected ion populations', Nuclear Fusion, vol. 59, no. 9, 096013. https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/ab2ca2
Reman, B. C.G. ; Dendy, R. O. ; Akiyama, T. ; Chapman, S. C. ; Cook, J. W.S. ; Igami, H. ; Shigeru, Inagaki ; Saito, K. ; Yun, G. S. / Interpreting observations of ion cyclotron emission from large helical device plasmas with beam-injected ion populations. In: Nuclear Fusion. 2019 ; Vol. 59, No. 9.
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AU - Chapman, S. C.

AU - Cook, J. W.S.

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N2 - Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) is detected from all large toroidal magnetically confined fusion (MCF) plasmas. It is a form of spontaneous suprathermal radiation, whose spectral peak frequencies correspond to sequential cyclotron harmonics of energetic ion species, evaluated at the emission location. In ICE phenomenology, an important parameter is the value of the ratio of energetic ion velocity vEnergetic to the local Alfvén speed VA. Here we focus on ICE measurements from heliotron-stellarator hydrogen plasmas, heated by energetic proton neutral beam injection (NBI) in the large helical device, for which vEnergetic/VA takes values both larger (super-Alfvénic) and smaller (sub-Alfvénic) than unity. The collective relaxation of the NBI proton population, together with the thermal plasma, is studied using a particle-in-cell (PIC) code. This evolves the Maxwell-Lorentz system of equations for hundreds of millions of kinetic gyro-orbit-resolved ions and fluid electrons, self-consistently with the electric and magnetic fields. For LHD-relevant parameter sets, the spatiotemporal Fourier transforms of the fields yield, in the nonlinear saturated regime, good computational proxies for the observed ICE spectra in both the super-Alfvénic and sub-Alfvénic regimes for NBI protons. At early times in the PIC treatment, the computed growth rates correspond to analytical linear growth rates of the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability (MCI), which was previously identified to underlie ICE from tokamak plasmas. The spatially localised PIC treatment does not include toroidal magnetic field geometry, nor background gradients in plasma parameters. Its success in simulating ICE spectra from both tokamak and, here, heliotron-stellarator plasmas suggests that the plasma parameters and ion energetic distribution at the emission location largely determine the ICE phenomenology. This is important for the future exploitation of ICE as a diagnostic for energetic ion populations in MCF plasmas. The capability to span the super Alfvénic and sub-Alfvénic energetic ion regimes is a generic challenge in interpreting MCF plasma physics, and it is encouraging that this first principles computational treatment of ICE has now achieved this.

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