Intrathecal upregulation of granulocyte colony stimulating factor and its neuroprotective actions on motor neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Masahito Tanaka, Hitoshi Kikuchi, Takaaki Ishizu, Motozumi Minohara, Manabu Osoegawa, Kyoko Motomura, Takahisa Tateishi, Yasumasa Ohyagi, Jun Ichi Kira

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To investigate cytokine/chemokine changes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we simultaneously measured 16 cytokine/chemokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 [p70], IL-13, IL-17, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, granulocyte colony stimulating factor [G-CSF], macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 [MCP-1], and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and sera from 37 patients with sporadic ALS and 33 controls using a multiplexed fluorescent bead-based immunoassay. We also conducted immunohistochemical analyses from 8 autopsied ALS cases and 6 nonneurologic disease controls as well as cell culture analyses of relevant cytokines and their receptors. We found that concentrations of G-CSF and MCP-1 were significantly increased in ALS CSF compared with controls. In spinal cords, G-CSF was expressed in reactive astrocytes in ALS cases but not controls, whereas G-CSF receptor expression was significantly decreased in motor neurons of spinal cords from ALS cases. Biologically, G-CSF had a protective effect on the NSC34 cell line under conditions of both oxidative and nutritional stress. We suggested that G-CSF has potentially neuroprotective effects on motor neurons in ALS and that downregulation of its receptor might contribute to ALS pathogenesis. On the other hand, MCP-1 correlated with disease severity, which may aggravate motor neuron damage.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)816-825
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 2006


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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