The ultimate goal of periodontal treatment is not only the stabilization of periodontal disease but also regeneration of the periodontal tissues destroyed by severe periodontitis. The tissue engineering triad of stem cells, biological signals, and cell-seeded scaffold provides a biological template for tissue regeneration. Neural crest stem cells (NCSC) comprise a transient multipotent stem cell population that initially emerges from the junction of the epidermal and neural ectoderm through reciprocal interactions between these tissues and signals from the mesoderm during embryonic development of vertebrates. The cells then migrate to their destination in the embryo and differentiate into various dental mesenchymal stem cells which give rise to most components of the dental tissues, including periodontal ligament (PDL), alveolar bone, cementum, dental pulp, and dentin. The crucial role that NCSC play in embryonic development makes them a highly promising stem cell population for use in the regeneration of periodontal tissues. Here, we review the current understanding of the features and functions of NCSC-derived cells in dental tissues. We additionally discuss the possibility that NCSC contribute to the regeneration of periodontal tissues.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Microbiology (miscellaneous)
- Oral Surgery