Isotope production in proton-, deuteron-, and carbon-induced reactions on Nb 93 at 113 MeV/nucleon

Keita Nakano, Yukinobu Watanabe, Shoichiro Kawase, He Wang, Hideaki Otsu, Hiroyoshi Sakurai, Satoshi Takeuchi, Yasuhiro Togano, Takashi Nakamura, Yukie Maeda, Deuk Soon Ahn, Masayuki Aikawa, Shouhei Araki, Sidong Chen, Nobuyuki Chiga, Pieter Doornenbal, Naoki Fukuda, Takashi Ichihara, Tadaaki Isobe, Shunsuke KawakamiTadahiro Kin, Yosuke Kondo, Shunpei Koyama, Toshiyuki Kubo, Shigeru Kubono, Meiko Uesaka, Ayano Makinaga, Masafumi Matsushita, Teiichiro Matsuzaki, Shin'ichiro Michimasa, Satoru Momiyama, Shunsuke Nagamine, Megumi Niikura, Tomoyuki Ozaki, Atsumi Saito, Takeshi Saito, Yoshiaki Shiga, Mizuki Shikata, Yohei Shimizu, Susumu Shimoura, Toshiyuki Sumikama, Pär Anders Söderström, Hiroshi Suzuki, Hiroyuki Takeda, Ryo Taniuchi, Jun'ichi Tsubota, Yasushi Watanabe, Kathrin Wimmer, Tatsuya Yamamoto, Koichi Yoshida

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Isotope-production cross sections for p-, d-, and C-induced spallation reactions on Nb93 at 113 MeV/nucleon were measured using the inverse-kinematics method employing secondary targets of CH2, CD2, and C. The measured cross sections for Mo90, Nb90, Y86,88 produced by p-induced reactions were found to be consistent with those measured by the conventional activation method. We performed benchmark tests of the reaction models INCL-4.6, JQMD, and JQMD-2.0 implemented in the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) and of the nuclear data libraries JENDL-4.0/HE, TENDL-2017, and ENDF/B-VIII.0. The model calculations also showed generally good agreement with the measured isotope-production cross sections for p-, d-, and C-induced reactions. It also turns out that, among the three nuclear data libraries, JENDL-4.0/HE provides the best agreement with the measured data for the p-induced reactions. We compared the present Nb93 data with the Zr93 data, that were measured previously by the same inverse kinematics method (Kawase et al., Prog. Theor. Exp. Phys. 2017, 093D03 (2017)2050-391110.1093/ptep/ptx110), with particular attention to the effect of neutron-shell closure on isotope production in p- and d-induced spallation reactions. The isotopic distributions of the measured production cross sections in the Zr93 data showed noticeable jumps at neutron number N=50 in the isotopic chains of ΔZ=0 and -1, whereas no such jump appeared in isotopic chain of ΔZ=0 in the Nb93 data. From INCL-4.6 + GEM calculations, we found that the jump formed in the evaporation process is smeared out by the intranuclear cascade component in Nb91 produced by the Nb93(p,p2n) and (d,d2n) reactions on Nb93. Moreover, for Nb93, the distribution of the element-production cross sections as a function of the change in proton number ΔZ is shifted to smaller ΔZ than for Zr93, because the excited Nb prefragments generated by the cascade process are more likely to emit protons than the excited Zr prefragments, due to the smaller proton-separation energies of the Nb isotopes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number044605
JournalPhysical Review C
Volume100
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 8 2019

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deuterons
isotopes
protons
carbon
cross sections
inverse kinematics
spallation
cascades
neutrons
closures
heavy ions
evaporation
activation
ions

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics

Cite this

Isotope production in proton-, deuteron-, and carbon-induced reactions on Nb 93 at 113 MeV/nucleon. / Nakano, Keita; Watanabe, Yukinobu; Kawase, Shoichiro; Wang, He; Otsu, Hideaki; Sakurai, Hiroyoshi; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Togano, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Takashi; Maeda, Yukie; Ahn, Deuk Soon; Aikawa, Masayuki; Araki, Shouhei; Chen, Sidong; Chiga, Nobuyuki; Doornenbal, Pieter; Fukuda, Naoki; Ichihara, Takashi; Isobe, Tadaaki; Kawakami, Shunsuke; Kin, Tadahiro; Kondo, Yosuke; Koyama, Shunpei; Kubo, Toshiyuki; Kubono, Shigeru; Uesaka, Meiko; Makinaga, Ayano; Matsushita, Masafumi; Matsuzaki, Teiichiro; Michimasa, Shin'ichiro; Momiyama, Satoru; Nagamine, Shunsuke; Niikura, Megumi; Ozaki, Tomoyuki; Saito, Atsumi; Saito, Takeshi; Shiga, Yoshiaki; Shikata, Mizuki; Shimizu, Yohei; Shimoura, Susumu; Sumikama, Toshiyuki; Söderström, Pär Anders; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Taniuchi, Ryo; Tsubota, Jun'ichi; Watanabe, Yasushi; Wimmer, Kathrin; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Koichi.

In: Physical Review C, Vol. 100, No. 4, 044605, 08.10.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nakano, K, Watanabe, Y, Kawase, S, Wang, H, Otsu, H, Sakurai, H, Takeuchi, S, Togano, Y, Nakamura, T, Maeda, Y, Ahn, DS, Aikawa, M, Araki, S, Chen, S, Chiga, N, Doornenbal, P, Fukuda, N, Ichihara, T, Isobe, T, Kawakami, S, Kin, T, Kondo, Y, Koyama, S, Kubo, T, Kubono, S, Uesaka, M, Makinaga, A, Matsushita, M, Matsuzaki, T, Michimasa, S, Momiyama, S, Nagamine, S, Niikura, M, Ozaki, T, Saito, A, Saito, T, Shiga, Y, Shikata, M, Shimizu, Y, Shimoura, S, Sumikama, T, Söderström, PA, Suzuki, H, Takeda, H, Taniuchi, R, Tsubota, J, Watanabe, Y, Wimmer, K, Yamamoto, T & Yoshida, K 2019, 'Isotope production in proton-, deuteron-, and carbon-induced reactions on Nb 93 at 113 MeV/nucleon', Physical Review C, vol. 100, no. 4, 044605. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.100.044605
Nakano, Keita ; Watanabe, Yukinobu ; Kawase, Shoichiro ; Wang, He ; Otsu, Hideaki ; Sakurai, Hiroyoshi ; Takeuchi, Satoshi ; Togano, Yasuhiro ; Nakamura, Takashi ; Maeda, Yukie ; Ahn, Deuk Soon ; Aikawa, Masayuki ; Araki, Shouhei ; Chen, Sidong ; Chiga, Nobuyuki ; Doornenbal, Pieter ; Fukuda, Naoki ; Ichihara, Takashi ; Isobe, Tadaaki ; Kawakami, Shunsuke ; Kin, Tadahiro ; Kondo, Yosuke ; Koyama, Shunpei ; Kubo, Toshiyuki ; Kubono, Shigeru ; Uesaka, Meiko ; Makinaga, Ayano ; Matsushita, Masafumi ; Matsuzaki, Teiichiro ; Michimasa, Shin'ichiro ; Momiyama, Satoru ; Nagamine, Shunsuke ; Niikura, Megumi ; Ozaki, Tomoyuki ; Saito, Atsumi ; Saito, Takeshi ; Shiga, Yoshiaki ; Shikata, Mizuki ; Shimizu, Yohei ; Shimoura, Susumu ; Sumikama, Toshiyuki ; Söderström, Pär Anders ; Suzuki, Hiroshi ; Takeda, Hiroyuki ; Taniuchi, Ryo ; Tsubota, Jun'ichi ; Watanabe, Yasushi ; Wimmer, Kathrin ; Yamamoto, Tatsuya ; Yoshida, Koichi. / Isotope production in proton-, deuteron-, and carbon-induced reactions on Nb 93 at 113 MeV/nucleon. In: Physical Review C. 2019 ; Vol. 100, No. 4.
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abstract = "Isotope-production cross sections for p-, d-, and C-induced spallation reactions on Nb93 at 113 MeV/nucleon were measured using the inverse-kinematics method employing secondary targets of CH2, CD2, and C. The measured cross sections for Mo90, Nb90, Y86,88 produced by p-induced reactions were found to be consistent with those measured by the conventional activation method. We performed benchmark tests of the reaction models INCL-4.6, JQMD, and JQMD-2.0 implemented in the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) and of the nuclear data libraries JENDL-4.0/HE, TENDL-2017, and ENDF/B-VIII.0. The model calculations also showed generally good agreement with the measured isotope-production cross sections for p-, d-, and C-induced reactions. It also turns out that, among the three nuclear data libraries, JENDL-4.0/HE provides the best agreement with the measured data for the p-induced reactions. We compared the present Nb93 data with the Zr93 data, that were measured previously by the same inverse kinematics method (Kawase et al., Prog. Theor. Exp. Phys. 2017, 093D03 (2017)2050-391110.1093/ptep/ptx110), with particular attention to the effect of neutron-shell closure on isotope production in p- and d-induced spallation reactions. The isotopic distributions of the measured production cross sections in the Zr93 data showed noticeable jumps at neutron number N=50 in the isotopic chains of ΔZ=0 and -1, whereas no such jump appeared in isotopic chain of ΔZ=0 in the Nb93 data. From INCL-4.6 + GEM calculations, we found that the jump formed in the evaporation process is smeared out by the intranuclear cascade component in Nb91 produced by the Nb93(p,p2n) and (d,d2n) reactions on Nb93. Moreover, for Nb93, the distribution of the element-production cross sections as a function of the change in proton number ΔZ is shifted to smaller ΔZ than for Zr93, because the excited Nb prefragments generated by the cascade process are more likely to emit protons than the excited Zr prefragments, due to the smaller proton-separation energies of the Nb isotopes.",
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T1 - Isotope production in proton-, deuteron-, and carbon-induced reactions on Nb 93 at 113 MeV/nucleon

AU - Nakano, Keita

AU - Watanabe, Yukinobu

AU - Kawase, Shoichiro

AU - Wang, He

AU - Otsu, Hideaki

AU - Sakurai, Hiroyoshi

AU - Takeuchi, Satoshi

AU - Togano, Yasuhiro

AU - Nakamura, Takashi

AU - Maeda, Yukie

AU - Ahn, Deuk Soon

AU - Aikawa, Masayuki

AU - Araki, Shouhei

AU - Chen, Sidong

AU - Chiga, Nobuyuki

AU - Doornenbal, Pieter

AU - Fukuda, Naoki

AU - Ichihara, Takashi

AU - Isobe, Tadaaki

AU - Kawakami, Shunsuke

AU - Kin, Tadahiro

AU - Kondo, Yosuke

AU - Koyama, Shunpei

AU - Kubo, Toshiyuki

AU - Kubono, Shigeru

AU - Uesaka, Meiko

AU - Makinaga, Ayano

AU - Matsushita, Masafumi

AU - Matsuzaki, Teiichiro

AU - Michimasa, Shin'ichiro

AU - Momiyama, Satoru

AU - Nagamine, Shunsuke

AU - Niikura, Megumi

AU - Ozaki, Tomoyuki

AU - Saito, Atsumi

AU - Saito, Takeshi

AU - Shiga, Yoshiaki

AU - Shikata, Mizuki

AU - Shimizu, Yohei

AU - Shimoura, Susumu

AU - Sumikama, Toshiyuki

AU - Söderström, Pär Anders

AU - Suzuki, Hiroshi

AU - Takeda, Hiroyuki

AU - Taniuchi, Ryo

AU - Tsubota, Jun'ichi

AU - Watanabe, Yasushi

AU - Wimmer, Kathrin

AU - Yamamoto, Tatsuya

AU - Yoshida, Koichi

PY - 2019/10/8

Y1 - 2019/10/8

N2 - Isotope-production cross sections for p-, d-, and C-induced spallation reactions on Nb93 at 113 MeV/nucleon were measured using the inverse-kinematics method employing secondary targets of CH2, CD2, and C. The measured cross sections for Mo90, Nb90, Y86,88 produced by p-induced reactions were found to be consistent with those measured by the conventional activation method. We performed benchmark tests of the reaction models INCL-4.6, JQMD, and JQMD-2.0 implemented in the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) and of the nuclear data libraries JENDL-4.0/HE, TENDL-2017, and ENDF/B-VIII.0. The model calculations also showed generally good agreement with the measured isotope-production cross sections for p-, d-, and C-induced reactions. It also turns out that, among the three nuclear data libraries, JENDL-4.0/HE provides the best agreement with the measured data for the p-induced reactions. We compared the present Nb93 data with the Zr93 data, that were measured previously by the same inverse kinematics method (Kawase et al., Prog. Theor. Exp. Phys. 2017, 093D03 (2017)2050-391110.1093/ptep/ptx110), with particular attention to the effect of neutron-shell closure on isotope production in p- and d-induced spallation reactions. The isotopic distributions of the measured production cross sections in the Zr93 data showed noticeable jumps at neutron number N=50 in the isotopic chains of ΔZ=0 and -1, whereas no such jump appeared in isotopic chain of ΔZ=0 in the Nb93 data. From INCL-4.6 + GEM calculations, we found that the jump formed in the evaporation process is smeared out by the intranuclear cascade component in Nb91 produced by the Nb93(p,p2n) and (d,d2n) reactions on Nb93. Moreover, for Nb93, the distribution of the element-production cross sections as a function of the change in proton number ΔZ is shifted to smaller ΔZ than for Zr93, because the excited Nb prefragments generated by the cascade process are more likely to emit protons than the excited Zr prefragments, due to the smaller proton-separation energies of the Nb isotopes.

AB - Isotope-production cross sections for p-, d-, and C-induced spallation reactions on Nb93 at 113 MeV/nucleon were measured using the inverse-kinematics method employing secondary targets of CH2, CD2, and C. The measured cross sections for Mo90, Nb90, Y86,88 produced by p-induced reactions were found to be consistent with those measured by the conventional activation method. We performed benchmark tests of the reaction models INCL-4.6, JQMD, and JQMD-2.0 implemented in the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) and of the nuclear data libraries JENDL-4.0/HE, TENDL-2017, and ENDF/B-VIII.0. The model calculations also showed generally good agreement with the measured isotope-production cross sections for p-, d-, and C-induced reactions. It also turns out that, among the three nuclear data libraries, JENDL-4.0/HE provides the best agreement with the measured data for the p-induced reactions. We compared the present Nb93 data with the Zr93 data, that were measured previously by the same inverse kinematics method (Kawase et al., Prog. Theor. Exp. Phys. 2017, 093D03 (2017)2050-391110.1093/ptep/ptx110), with particular attention to the effect of neutron-shell closure on isotope production in p- and d-induced spallation reactions. The isotopic distributions of the measured production cross sections in the Zr93 data showed noticeable jumps at neutron number N=50 in the isotopic chains of ΔZ=0 and -1, whereas no such jump appeared in isotopic chain of ΔZ=0 in the Nb93 data. From INCL-4.6 + GEM calculations, we found that the jump formed in the evaporation process is smeared out by the intranuclear cascade component in Nb91 produced by the Nb93(p,p2n) and (d,d2n) reactions on Nb93. Moreover, for Nb93, the distribution of the element-production cross sections as a function of the change in proton number ΔZ is shifted to smaller ΔZ than for Zr93, because the excited Nb prefragments generated by the cascade process are more likely to emit protons than the excited Zr prefragments, due to the smaller proton-separation energies of the Nb isotopes.

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