The Hisayama Study is a population-based prospective cohort study designed to evaluate the risk factors for lifestyle-related diseases, such as stroke, coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and dementia, in a general Japanese population. The prospective follow-up surveys have been conducted in subjects aged 40 or older since 1961. Notable characteristics of this study include its high participation rate (70–80% of all residents aged 40 or older), high follow-up rate (99% or over), and high autopsy rate (approximately 75% of deceased cases). The Hisayama Study has provided valuable evidence of secular change in the prevalence and incidence of several lifestyle-related disease and their risk factors. The study has thereby contributed to elucidation of the preventive strategies for lifestyle-related disease. Research efforts in this cohort are ongoing and will provide additional data for the improvement of human health and longevity.
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