Juvenile volcanic glass erupted before the appearance of the 1991 lava dome, Unzen volcano, Kyushu, Japan

Koichiro Watanabe, Tohru Danhara, Kazunori Watanabe, Kunihisa Terai, Tohru Yamashita

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Fugen-dake, the main peak of Unzen volcano, began to erupt on 17 November 1990 after 198 years of dormancy. Following a period of steam-dominated tephra eruptions, a new lava dome appeared at the bottom of Jigokuato Crater in the summit region on 20 May 1991. Non-hydrated vesiculated glass was detected in the precursory tephra eruptions, beginning 12 February 1991. Determination of whether glass pyroclasts are hydrated or not appears to be an effective means of ascertaining whether the tephra contains juvenile material from ascending magma. The detection of juvenile pyroclasts at Fugen-dake more than 3 months before the appearance of the lava dome suggests that monitoring of early tephra emissions is an effective way to help forecast impending magmatic eruptions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)113-121
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research
Issue number1-4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 1999


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geophysics
  • Geochemistry and Petrology

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