TY - JOUR

T1 - L -reduction computation revisited

AU - Fujioka, Kaoru

AU - Okubo, Fumiya

AU - Yokomori, Takashi

N1 - Funding Information:
The authors are grateful to the anonymous referees for their careful reading and valuable comments which improved this paper considerably. The work of F. Okubo was in part supported by JSPS KAKENHI, Grant Number JP16K16008.
Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.

PY - 2022

Y1 - 2022

N2 - Let K and L be two languages over Σ and Γ (with Γ ⊂ Σ), respectively. Then, the L-reduction of K, denoted by K%L, is defined by {u0u1⋯un∈(Σ-Γ)∗∣u0v1u1⋯vnun∈K,vi∈L(1≤i≤n)}. This is extended to language classes as follows: K%L={K%L∣K∈K,L∈L}. In this paper, we investigate the computing powers of K%L in which K ranges among various classes of INSji and min-LIN, while L is taken as DYCK and F, where INSji: the class of insertion languages of weight (j, i), min-LIN: the class of minimal linear languages, DYCK: the class of Dyck languages, and F: the class of finite languages. The obtained results include:INS11%DYCK=REINSi0%F=INSj1%F=CF (for i≥ 3 and j≥ 1)INS20%DYCK=INS20min-LIN%F1=LIN where RE, CF, LIN, F1 are classes of recursively enumerable, of context-free, of linear languages, and of singleton languages over unary alphabet, respectively. Further, we provide a very simple alternative proof for the known result min-LIN%DYCK2=RE. We also show that with a certain condition, for the class of context-sensitive languages CS, there exists no K such that K%DYCK=CS, which is in marked contrast to the characterization results mentioned above for other classes in Chomsky hierarchy. It should be remarked from the viewpoint of molecular computing theory that the notion of L-reduction is naturally motivated by a molecular biological functioning well-known as RNA splicing occurring in most eukaryotic genes.

AB - Let K and L be two languages over Σ and Γ (with Γ ⊂ Σ), respectively. Then, the L-reduction of K, denoted by K%L, is defined by {u0u1⋯un∈(Σ-Γ)∗∣u0v1u1⋯vnun∈K,vi∈L(1≤i≤n)}. This is extended to language classes as follows: K%L={K%L∣K∈K,L∈L}. In this paper, we investigate the computing powers of K%L in which K ranges among various classes of INSji and min-LIN, while L is taken as DYCK and F, where INSji: the class of insertion languages of weight (j, i), min-LIN: the class of minimal linear languages, DYCK: the class of Dyck languages, and F: the class of finite languages. The obtained results include:INS11%DYCK=REINSi0%F=INSj1%F=CF (for i≥ 3 and j≥ 1)INS20%DYCK=INS20min-LIN%F1=LIN where RE, CF, LIN, F1 are classes of recursively enumerable, of context-free, of linear languages, and of singleton languages over unary alphabet, respectively. Further, we provide a very simple alternative proof for the known result min-LIN%DYCK2=RE. We also show that with a certain condition, for the class of context-sensitive languages CS, there exists no K such that K%DYCK=CS, which is in marked contrast to the characterization results mentioned above for other classes in Chomsky hierarchy. It should be remarked from the viewpoint of molecular computing theory that the notion of L-reduction is naturally motivated by a molecular biological functioning well-known as RNA splicing occurring in most eukaryotic genes.

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U2 - 10.1007/s00236-022-00418-0

DO - 10.1007/s00236-022-00418-0

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85127144266

SN - 0001-5903

JO - Acta Informatica

JF - Acta Informatica

ER -