Background: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a life-threatening disease that leads to end-stage kidney disease if only a poor response to plasma exchanges (PEs) or eculizumab therapy is achieved. Case presentation: A 58-year-old Japanese man presented with thrombocytopenia, anemia, and kidney failure requiring dialysis without any underlying disease. A kidney biopsy revealed marked mesangiolysis in all glomeruli, compatible with thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Based on the positive anti- factor H antibody and negative result for secondary TMA, we diagnosed him as aHUS. Despite eculizumab administration after eight sessions of PE, neither platelet normalization nor kidney recovery was achieved. Eight months later, we discontinued eculizumab therapy due to anaphylactic reaction. At 15 months after the onset of TMA, his platelet count increased gradually from 40 to 150 × 103/μL with a decreased serum creatinine level and increased urine output, eventually allowing the withdrawal of dialysis therapy. A second kidney biopsy showed mesangial widening compatible with the healing of TMA. Conclusions: This case indicates that aHUS with PEs and eculizumab therapy has the potential for renal recovery even if over 1 year has passed.
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