Despite the similarities of the optoelectronic properties between tin halide and lead halide perovskites, the performance of tin perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is still far below that of lead PSCs with highest reported efficiency to date of around 10%. This is due to the chemical instability of tin halide perovskite crystals and the energy band levels mismatch between the perovskite and charge transport layers. In this work, tin halide PSCs with efficiency of more than 13% has been fabricated by regulating the A site cation to achieve a tolerance factor of nearly 1. The partial substitution of formamidinium cation with ethylammonium cation affords a more stable tin perovskite crystal and at the same time suppresses the trap density by as much as 1 order of magnitude. Furthermore, the more favourable energy levels of the EA-substituted tin perovskites enhanced the charge extraction process into the charge transport layers and thus reducing the charge carrier recombination. This work provides a proof that tin-halide PSCs has the potential to compete with more toxic lead-based PSCs, and hopefully will pave the future direction for fabricating more efficient and stable lead-free PSCs.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Materials Science(all)
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering