The goal of image annotation is to automatically assign a set of textual labels to an image to describe the visual contents thereof. Recently, with the rapid increase in the number of web images, nearest neighbor (NN) based methods have become more attractive and have shown exciting results for image annotation. One of the key challenges of these methods is to define an appropriate similarity measure between images for neighbor selection. Several distance metric learning (DML) algorithms derived from traditional image classification problems have been applied to annotation tasks. However, a fundamental limitation of applying DML to image annotation is that it learns a single global distance metric over the entire image collection and measures the distance between image pairs in the image-level. For multi-label annotation problems, it may be more reasonable to measure similarity of image pairs in the label-level. In this paper, we develop a novel label prediction scheme utilizing multiple label-specific local metrics for label-level similarity measure, and propose two different local metric learning methods in a multi-task learning (MTL) framework. Extensive experimental results on two challenging annotation datasets demonstrate that 1) utilizing multiple local distance metrics to learn label-level distances is superior to using a single global metric in label prediction, and 2) the proposed methods using the MTL framework to learn multiple local metrics simultaneously can model the commonalities of labels, thereby facilitating label prediction results to achieve state-of-the-art annotation performance.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Media Technology
- Hardware and Architecture
- Computer Networks and Communications