Levan (β-2, 6-fructan), a major fraction of fermented soybean mucilage, displays immunostimulating properties via Toll-like receptor 4 signalling

Induction of interleukin-12 production and suppression of T-helper type 2 response and immunoglobulin E production

Q. Xu, T. Yajima, W. Li, K. Saito, Y. Ohshima, Yasunobu Yoshikai

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    58 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Background: Products from the fermentation process of soybeans by Bacillus subtilis (natto) have been shown to possess anti-tumour and immunomodulatory activities. However, the formulations previously examined were not chemically pure, and this is a major limitation for elucidation of the molecular mechanisms for their activities. Objective: In order to determine which components in soybean mucilage exert immunostimulatory activities, we examined the activities of their purified forms in vitro and in vivo in mice. Methods: B. subtilis (natto) and fractions including levan and poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) from fermented soybean mucilage were prepared. Levels of cytokine production by mouse macrophage cells after treatment with the fractions were measured by means of ELISA. In vivo effect of levan delivered intragastrically on ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T-helper type 2 (Th2) response with IgE production was examined in BALB/c mice that had been immunized intraperitoneally with OVA. Results: Levan but neither γ-PGA nor killed B. subtilis (natto) was found to exert strong activity to induce production of IL-12 p40 and TNF-α by macrophage cell lines in vitro. Results of experiments using Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4-deficient mice and TLR4-transfected human cell line indicated that TLR4 is involved in pattern recognition of levan. Oral administration of levan in vivo significantly reduced the serum levels of OVA-specific IgE and Th2 response to OVA in mice immunized with OVA. Conclusion: Levan is an immunostimulatory moiety in products from the fermentation process of B. subtilis (natto) and may be useful for prevention of allergic disorders with IgE production.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)94-101
    Number of pages8
    JournalClinical and Experimental Allergy
    Volume36
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2006

    Fingerprint

    Fructans
    Toll-Like Receptor 4
    Interleukin-12
    Soybeans
    Immunoglobulin E
    Ovalbumin
    Bacillus subtilis
    Fermentation
    Macrophages
    Prostaglandins A
    Cell Line
    Oral Administration
    levan
    Glutamic Acid
    Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
    Cytokines
    Serum

    All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

    • Immunology and Allergy
    • Immunology

    Cite this

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    title = "Levan (β-2, 6-fructan), a major fraction of fermented soybean mucilage, displays immunostimulating properties via Toll-like receptor 4 signalling: Induction of interleukin-12 production and suppression of T-helper type 2 response and immunoglobulin E production",
    abstract = "Background: Products from the fermentation process of soybeans by Bacillus subtilis (natto) have been shown to possess anti-tumour and immunomodulatory activities. However, the formulations previously examined were not chemically pure, and this is a major limitation for elucidation of the molecular mechanisms for their activities. Objective: In order to determine which components in soybean mucilage exert immunostimulatory activities, we examined the activities of their purified forms in vitro and in vivo in mice. Methods: B. subtilis (natto) and fractions including levan and poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) from fermented soybean mucilage were prepared. Levels of cytokine production by mouse macrophage cells after treatment with the fractions were measured by means of ELISA. In vivo effect of levan delivered intragastrically on ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T-helper type 2 (Th2) response with IgE production was examined in BALB/c mice that had been immunized intraperitoneally with OVA. Results: Levan but neither γ-PGA nor killed B. subtilis (natto) was found to exert strong activity to induce production of IL-12 p40 and TNF-α by macrophage cell lines in vitro. Results of experiments using Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4-deficient mice and TLR4-transfected human cell line indicated that TLR4 is involved in pattern recognition of levan. Oral administration of levan in vivo significantly reduced the serum levels of OVA-specific IgE and Th2 response to OVA in mice immunized with OVA. Conclusion: Levan is an immunostimulatory moiety in products from the fermentation process of B. subtilis (natto) and may be useful for prevention of allergic disorders with IgE production.",
    author = "Q. Xu and T. Yajima and W. Li and K. Saito and Y. Ohshima and Yasunobu Yoshikai",
    year = "2006",
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    doi = "10.1111/j.1365-2222.2006.02401.x",
    language = "English",
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    T1 - Levan (β-2, 6-fructan), a major fraction of fermented soybean mucilage, displays immunostimulating properties via Toll-like receptor 4 signalling

    T2 - Induction of interleukin-12 production and suppression of T-helper type 2 response and immunoglobulin E production

    AU - Xu, Q.

    AU - Yajima, T.

    AU - Li, W.

    AU - Saito, K.

    AU - Ohshima, Y.

    AU - Yoshikai, Yasunobu

    PY - 2006/1/1

    Y1 - 2006/1/1

    N2 - Background: Products from the fermentation process of soybeans by Bacillus subtilis (natto) have been shown to possess anti-tumour and immunomodulatory activities. However, the formulations previously examined were not chemically pure, and this is a major limitation for elucidation of the molecular mechanisms for their activities. Objective: In order to determine which components in soybean mucilage exert immunostimulatory activities, we examined the activities of their purified forms in vitro and in vivo in mice. Methods: B. subtilis (natto) and fractions including levan and poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) from fermented soybean mucilage were prepared. Levels of cytokine production by mouse macrophage cells after treatment with the fractions were measured by means of ELISA. In vivo effect of levan delivered intragastrically on ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T-helper type 2 (Th2) response with IgE production was examined in BALB/c mice that had been immunized intraperitoneally with OVA. Results: Levan but neither γ-PGA nor killed B. subtilis (natto) was found to exert strong activity to induce production of IL-12 p40 and TNF-α by macrophage cell lines in vitro. Results of experiments using Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4-deficient mice and TLR4-transfected human cell line indicated that TLR4 is involved in pattern recognition of levan. Oral administration of levan in vivo significantly reduced the serum levels of OVA-specific IgE and Th2 response to OVA in mice immunized with OVA. Conclusion: Levan is an immunostimulatory moiety in products from the fermentation process of B. subtilis (natto) and may be useful for prevention of allergic disorders with IgE production.

    AB - Background: Products from the fermentation process of soybeans by Bacillus subtilis (natto) have been shown to possess anti-tumour and immunomodulatory activities. However, the formulations previously examined were not chemically pure, and this is a major limitation for elucidation of the molecular mechanisms for their activities. Objective: In order to determine which components in soybean mucilage exert immunostimulatory activities, we examined the activities of their purified forms in vitro and in vivo in mice. Methods: B. subtilis (natto) and fractions including levan and poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) from fermented soybean mucilage were prepared. Levels of cytokine production by mouse macrophage cells after treatment with the fractions were measured by means of ELISA. In vivo effect of levan delivered intragastrically on ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T-helper type 2 (Th2) response with IgE production was examined in BALB/c mice that had been immunized intraperitoneally with OVA. Results: Levan but neither γ-PGA nor killed B. subtilis (natto) was found to exert strong activity to induce production of IL-12 p40 and TNF-α by macrophage cell lines in vitro. Results of experiments using Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4-deficient mice and TLR4-transfected human cell line indicated that TLR4 is involved in pattern recognition of levan. Oral administration of levan in vivo significantly reduced the serum levels of OVA-specific IgE and Th2 response to OVA in mice immunized with OVA. Conclusion: Levan is an immunostimulatory moiety in products from the fermentation process of B. subtilis (natto) and may be useful for prevention of allergic disorders with IgE production.

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    M3 - Article

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    JO - Clinical and Experimental Allergy

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