This paper presents the results of recent studies on tropospheric aerosols, including Asian dust and forest fire smoke using the NIES Lidar Network, CALIPSO/CALIOP and chemical transport models. The NIES Lidar Network is a network of two-wavelength (532nm, 1064nm) polarization (532nm) lidars in East Asia. Currently the lidars are continuously operated at about 20 locations in Japan, Korea, China, Mongolia, and Thailand, in cooperation with various research institutes and universities. The network is a part of the Asian Dust Network (ADNet), SKYNET, and the GAW Aerosol Lidar Observation Network (GALION). The data from most of the lidar stations are transferred to NIES in realtime and automatically processed to derive the attenuated backscattering coefficients at 532nm and 1064nm, the volume depolarization ratio at 532nm, and the estimated dust and spherical aerosol extinction coefficients at 532nm. The data from the network are used in various research activities on Asian dust, regional air pollution, and the effects of aerosols on climate and the environment. The data are also used for real-time monitoring (for early warning assessment) of Asian dust. The results of recent studies on long-range transport of Asian dust, optical characteristics of forest fire plumes, aerosol climatology, etc. will be described.