Background: Linoleic acid is the major fatty acid moiety of cardiolipin, which is central to the assembly of components involved in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Although linoleic acid is an essential nutrient, its excess intake is harmful to health. On the other hand, linoleic acid has been shown to prevent the reduction in cardiolipin content and to improve mitochondrial function in aged rats with spontaneous hypertensive heart failure (HF). In this study, we found that lower dietary intake of linoleic acid in HF patients statistically correlates with greater severity of HF, and we investigated the mechanisms therein involved. Methods: HF patients, who were classified as New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class I (n = 45), II (n = 93), and III (n = 15), were analyzed regarding their dietary intakes of different fatty acids during the one month prior to the study. Then, using a mouse model of HF, we confirmed reduced cardiolipin levels in their cardiac myocytes, and then analyzed the mechanisms by which dietary supplementation of linoleic acid improves cardiac malfunction of mitochondria. Results: The dietary intake of linoleic acid was significantly lower in NYHA III patients, as compared to NYHA II patients. In HF model mice, both CI-based and CII-based OXPHOS activities were affected together with reduced cardiolipin levels. Silencing of CRLS1, which encodes cardiolipin synthetase, in cultured cardiomyocytes phenocopied these events. Feeding HF mice with linoleic acid improved both CI-based and CII-based respiration as well as left ventricular function, together with an increase in cardiolipin levels. However, although assembly of the respirasome (i.e., CI/CIII2/CIV complex), as well as assembly of CII subunits and the CIII2/CIV complex statistically correlated with cardiolipin levels in cultured cardiomyocytes, respirasome assembly was not notably restored by dietary linoleic acid in HF mice. Therefore, although linoleic acid may significantly improve both CI-based and CII-based respiration of cardiomyocytes, respirasomes impaired by HF were not easily repaired by the dietary intake of linoleic acid. Conclusions: Dietary supplement of linoleic acid is beneficial for improving cardiac malfunction in HF, but is unable to completely cure HF.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology