Lipid-based biocompatible ionic liquids (LBILs) have attracted attention as carriers in transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDSs) because of their lipophilic character. In this study, we report the formulation of a peptide-LBIL complex microencapsulated in an oil phase as a potential carrier for the transdermal delivery of leuprolide acetate as a model hydrophilic peptide. The peptide-LBIL complexes were prepared via a water-in-oil emulsion composed of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycerol-3-ethyl-phosphatidylcholine (EDMPC), a fatty acid (stearic, oleic, and linoleic acid)-based LBIL, and cyclohexane followed by freeze-drying to remove the water and cyclohexane. Then, the peptide-LBIL complexes were nanodispersed and stabilized in isopropyl myristate (IPM) using sorbitol laurate (Span-20). Ionic-liquid-in-oil nanodispersions (IL/O-NDs) were prepared with varying weight ratios of LBILs and Span-20 as the surfactant and the cosurfactant, respectively. Keeping the overall surfactant constant at 10 wt % in IPM, a 5:5 wt % ratio of surfactant (IL) and cosurfactant (Span-20) in the IL/O-NDs significantly (p < 0.0001) increased the physiochemical stability, drug-loading capacity, and drug encapsulation efficiency. The in vitro and in vivo peptide delivery across the skin was increased significantly (p < 0.0001) using IL/O-NDs, compared with non-IL-treated groups. Of all of the LBIL-based formulations, [EDMPC][Linoleate]/O-ND was considered the most preferable for a TDDS based on the pharmacokinetic parameters. The transdermal delivery flux with [EDMPC][Linoleate]/O-ND was increased 65-fold compared with the aqueous delivery vehicle. The IL/O-NDs were able to deform the lipid and protein arrangements of the skin layers to enhance the transdermal permeation of the peptide. In vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity studies of the IL/O-NDs revealed the biocompatibility of the LBIL-based formulations. These results indicated that IL/O-NDs are promising biocompatible carriers for lipid-peptide TDDSs.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biomedical Engineering
- Biochemistry, medical