Living with ZK - an approach towards communication with analogue messages

Toshiro Minami, Hideto Sazuka, Sachio Hirokawa, Takeshi Ohtani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


It is well known that we communicate more with non-verbal means than verbal ones. It is also true when we communicate with drawing using paper and pencils. We use not only words and texts but also use marks, symbols, and other non-verbal information like arrangement or colors. This paper proposes a new approach to electronic communication with verbal messages together with non-verbal, or analogue, messages. ZK(ZeichenblocK) provides us a means of exchanging analogue messages in a network-transparent way. Its potential importance is demonstrated with applications to such as `analogue questionnaire' and `concept representation.' Such analogue data which is represented as ZK-scripts are effectively distributed in the `word-of-mouth' mechanism.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)369-374
Number of pages6
JournalUnknown Journal
Publication statusPublished - 1998
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computer Science(all)


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