Long-term assessment of recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis C after viral cure by direct-acting antivirals

The Kyushu University Liver Disease Study (KULDS) Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background and Aim: Early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence is common, even after achieving hepatitis C virus (HCV) cure. This study was carried out to assess the long-term trends and predictors of recurrence after HCV cure by direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). Methods: This retrospective, multicenter cohort study enrolled 365 consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis C who required HCC treatment following sustained viral response (SVR) by DAA administration. Patients with HCC recurrence before SVR were excluded. Late HCC recurrence and its predictors beyond the post-treatment early phase (24 weeks after SVR) were evaluated. Results: The data of 326 patients were available for the final analysis. The median follow-up duration from SVR determination was 2.7 years. Median age was 74, and 220 (67.5%) were 70 or over. The corresponding 5-year cumulative HCC recurrence rates of previous curative and palliative treatment groups were 45.4% and 65.7%, respectively (log-rank test: P < 0.001). Cox regression multivariable analysis revealed that cirrhosis (hazard ratio [HR] 1.85, P = 0.021), the number of HCC nodules (≥ 2) (HR 1.52, P = 0.031), and previous palliative HCC treatment (HR 1.71, P = 0.012) were independent predictors of late recurrence, in addition to the predictors of early recurrence; AFP > 7 ng/mL at 12 weeks after DAA administration, time from HCC complete response (CR) to DAA initiation (< 1 year), and the number of HCC treatments necessary to achieve CR (≥ 2). Conclusions: The evaluation of fibrosis and characteristics of the previous HCC would allow for better HCC recurrence stratification, which would be helpful for developing long-term surveillance strategies.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (Australia)
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Hepatology
  • Gastroenterology

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