We previously reported that CaCl2 hydrothermal-treated (Ca-HT) titanium (Ti) implants induced a tight sealing at the interface between the implant and peri-implant epithelium (PIE) after implantation. However, it is not clear how long this improved epithelium sealing can be maintained. We subsequently investigated whether the positive effect of Ca-HT to promote sealing between the PIE and implant was sustained longer term. Maxillary molars were extracted from rats and replaced with either Ca-HT implants (Ca-HT group), distilled water-HT implants (DW-HT group) or non-treated implants (control group). After 16 weeks, the majority of implants in the Ca-HT group remained at the maxillary with no apical extension of the PIE. Conversely, half the number of control implants was lost following down-growth of the PIE. The effect of Ca-HT on migration and proliferation of rat oral epithelial cells (OECs) was also investigated. In OECs cultured on Ca-HT Ti plates, protein expression in relation to cell migration decreased, and proliferation was higher than other groups. Surface analysis indicated HT enhanced the formation of surface TiO2 layer without altering surface topography. Consequently, Ca-HT of Ti reduced PIE down-growth via tight epithelial attachment to the surface, which may enhance implant capability for a longer time post-implantation.