Low-temperature flux growth and upconversion fluorescence of the idiomorphic hexagonal-system NaYF4 and NaYF4:Ln (Ln = Yb, Er, Tm) crystals

Sayaka Suzuki, Katsuya Teshima, Toshiko Wakabayashi, Hiromasa Nishikiori, Kunio Yubuta, Toetsu Shishido, Shuji Oishi

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Idiomorphic NaYF4 and NaYF4:Ln (Ln = Yb, Er, Tm) crystals with upconversion fluorescence were successfully grown by the NaNO 3 flux cooling method at a relatively low holding temperature. The grown NaYF4 and NaYF4:Ln crystals had a hexagonal prismatic form, and their well-developed surfaces were relatively flat. TEM images indicated that the NaYF4 crystals were of good crystallinity. Their size and shape were relatively uniform, and they were poorly aggregated. The crystal phase, form, and size depended on the growth temperature and the solute concentration. In contrast, the addition of dopant ions (Yb3+, Er3+, and Tm3+) did not affect the shape, morphology, or crystallinity of the flux-grown NaYF4:Ln crystals. Additionally, the upconversion fluorescence properties of NaYF4:Ln crystals were also dependent on the type and mixture ratio (i.e., starting composition) of the dopants. The green, orange, and blue upconversion fluorescences of NaYF 4:10%Yb,1%Er, NaYF4:50%Yb,1%Er, and NaYF 4:10%Yb,1%Tm crystals, respectively, were observed under 980 nm laser irradiation via two-or three-photon upconversion processes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4825-4830
Number of pages6
JournalCrystal Growth and Design
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2 2011
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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