Although LPLRFamide was the first member of the RFamide family to be isolated from a vertebrate species, its effects on hunger and satiety-related processes are poorly documented. Thus, we intracerebroventricularly administered LPLRFamide (3.0-15.0 nmol) to both Cobb-500 (a broiler type of Gallus gallus) and Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) chicks and measured their food intake. The threshold of anorexigenic response was 7.0 nmol in Cobb-500 chicks and the effect had diminished by 30 min post-injection. In Bobwhite quail all doses of LPLRFamide tested caused anorexia that remained throughout the 60 min observation period. A comprehensive behavior analysis was conducted and Cobb-500 chicks had increased food pecks early in the observation period and spent a greater amount of time in deep rest. Although food pecks were increased pecking efficiency was decreased. In Bobwhite quail, feeding pecks and the number of jumps were reduced after LPLRFamide treatment. We judged that these behaviors in both species were likely not competitive with ingestion and thus did not secondarily contribute to anorexia. These results demonstrate that LPLRFamide is associated with satiety-related processes in Cobb-500 chicks and Bobwhite quail, while threshold of responses are different.
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