Aim: To clarify the perinatal outcomes in pregnancy complicated with intracranial arteriovenous malformation (i-AVM). Methods: A retrospective study was performed in 36 pregnancies complicated by i-AVM from 1981 to 2013 at one institution. Results: In total, 6 women miscarried, and 30 had live births. The median (range) gestational age at delivery was 38 (24–40) weeks; 11 cases experienced initial i-AVM rupture during pregnancy (first, second and third trimester: 18%, 64% and 18%, respectively). At onset, 4 cases had a Glasgow Coma Scale ≤10, 10 cases needed emergency maternal transport, 4 underwent neurosurgery with the fetus in utero and 4 had termination of pregnancy in the second trimester for emergent treatment for i-AVM. Two cases delivered vaginally. Another 25 cases had already been diagnosed as i-AVM at conception. Of these, as an indication for epidural birth, 18 cases had either residual lesion of i-AVM or neurological symptoms, although 18 cases had received treatments of i-AVM before conception. Without rupture of i-AVM and worsening of symptoms, 15 cases succeeded in epidural birth. One case was delivered by cesarean section for residual i-AVM with indication of treatment. Another case who had refused treatment of i-AVM experienced rupture of i-AVM 1 year after delivery. Conclusion: Most of the cases with residual i-AVM lesion and neurological symptoms could deliver vaginally without worsening of symptoms. However, pregnancy with i-AVM can be complicated by rupture of i-AVM. In cases with a residual lesion with indication of treatment and rupture of i-AVM during pregnancy, meticulous care is required during pregnancy and after delivery.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Obstetrics and Gynaecology