The causes of dentofacial deformities include various known syndromes, genetics, environmental and neuromuscular factors, trauma, and tumors. Above all, the functional effects of muscles are important, and deformation of the mandible is often associated with a mechanical imbalance of the masticatory muscles. With the vertical position of the face, weakness of the sling of the masseter muscle and medial pterygoid muscle causes dilatation of the mandibular angle. In patients with a deep bite, excessive function of the masticatory muscles is reported. Myosin heavy chain (MyHC) properties also affect jawbone morphology. In short-face patients, the proportion of type II fibers, which are fast muscles, is high. The proportions of muscle fiber types are genetically determined but can be altered by postnatal environmental factors. Orthognathic surgery may results in the transition of MyHC to type II (fast) fibers, but excessive stretching enhances the release of inflammatory mediators and causes a shift toward a greater proportion of slow muscle fibers. This feature can be related to postoperative relapse. Bones and muscles are in close crosstalk, and it may be possible to use biochemical approaches as well as biomechanical considerations for the treatment of jaw deformities.
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