Parental control of primary sex ratio has been reported in a mammal (red deer), some birds, and a snake. However, it remains uncertain whether other vertebrates including Amphibia can control sex ratio. In this paper, we examined the possibility in a wild population of the Japanese frog Rana rugosa which has female heterogamety. Sex ratios of their eggs were determined using DNA markers. The eggs were sampled in the field from May to August in 1998. Each egg was then sexed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using a sex-specific DNA marker. The result showed a male bias early in the season which changed to a female bias later, suggesting that females of R. rugosa can control the primary sex ratio.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics